Globa health issues- last minute revision!

just a quick set of revision bits to trigger my mind and hopefully some others too especially if you have a geography exam on friday at 9 am!

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Health trends and causes

MEDCs- lower BR, therfore an Ageing population, therfore higher DR

most illnesses are therefore age related and being an MEDC diseases of affluence

LEDCs- higher BR, therfore an Youthful population, therefore lower DR

most illnesses are infectious ones and affect the young and productive population

Most Diseases of Affluence are non communicable but interelated e.g. obesity can lead to diabetes, heart disease and strokes, possibly depression

Most Diseases of Poverty are communicable like HIV/AIDS, Malaria, TB etc- mostly once someone has been made ill by one disease their immune system is so much weaker and so they are more susceptible to others. For example TB is the biggest killer in S. Africa among HIV positive people

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Health trends and causes

MEDCs- lower BR, therfore an Ageing population, therfore higher DR

most illnesses are therefore age related and being an MEDC diseases of affluence

LEDCs- higher BR, therfore an Youthful population, therefore lower DR

most illnesses are infectious ones and affect the young and productive population

Most Diseases of Affluence are non communicable but interelated e.g. obesity can lead to diabetes, heart disease and strokes, possibly depression

Most Diseases of Poverty are communicable like HIV/AIDS, Malaria, TB etc- mostly once someone has been made ill by one disease their immune system is so much weaker and so they are more susceptible to others. For example TB is the biggest killer in S. Africa among HIV positive people

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Morbidity

Higher morbidity in LEDCs than MEDCs and there are a difference in the types eg DoA and DoP

LEDCs however have lower LE because of 4 factors:

  • Nutrition-less than average calorie intake means lack of nutrition which affects both intellectual and physical growth
  • lack of Sanitation and clean water- cleaner water would reduce trachoma, malaria, diarrhoeal diseases etc by 25% to 1/3
  • social disease (HIV/AIDS)
  • poor living conditions/environment

MEDCs are affected by: these are more lifestyle choices which affect health

  • poor diet-
  • physical inactivity
  • high blood pressure
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Morbidity

Higher morbidity in LEDCs than MEDCs and there are a difference in the types eg DoA and DoP

LEDCs however have lower LE because of 4 factors:

  • Nutrition-less than average calorie intake means lack of nutrition which affects both intellectual and physical growth
  • lack of Sanitation and clean water- cleaner water would reduce trachoma, malaria, diarrhoeal diseases etc by 25% to 1/3
  • social disease (HIV/AIDS)
  • poor living conditions/environment

MEDCs are affected by: these are more lifestyle choices which affect health

  • poor diet-
  • physical inactivity
  • high blood pressure
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Malaria

Caused by the female mosquito which injects parasites, which cause the RBCs to burst

live near stagnant water and hotter climates and as a result of climatic change they are moving into Southern Europe- can often be found in swamps of Florida with occasional outbreaks

over 2 million have died from malaria, with 698 million episodes worldwide

91% of global death from it were in Sub-Saharan Africa

This is because of the lack of preventative measure such as vaccines and insecticide bug nets

lack of clean water, lack of access to Doctors and money to afford treatment, poor nutrition and limited Health acre education

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Malaria

Caused by the female mosquito which injects parasites, which cause the RBCs to burst

live near stagnant water and hotter climates and as a result of climatic change they are moving into Southern Europe- can often be found in swamps of Florida with occasional outbreaks

over 2 million have died from malaria, with 698 million episodes worldwide

91% of global death from it were in Sub-Saharan Africa

This is because of the lack of preventative measure such as vaccines and insecticide bug nets

lack of clean water, lack of access to Doctors and money to afford treatment, poor nutrition and limited Health acre education

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Malaria

Some are trying to find cures to the problem but there is little funding for R and D

Not only this but currently Governements are trying to resolve the epidemic of HIV/AIDs which strains on resources as well as the economy so there is less money to provide bug nets etc.

GSK are in the 3rd phase of their Malaria vaccine, which they hope to use on children in 3-5 years time

they will then also use the profits (which will be no higher than 25%) to invest in other tropical diseases, and a 2nd generation of Malaria vaccinations

A problem is that malaria is becoming more resistant to vaccines, so more R and D has to be done to create a stronger vaccine

Tried putting DDT into rivers/waters to kill of the disease carrying mosquito and their larvea however instead the people were poisoned by the insecticide.

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Malaria

Some are trying to find cures to the problem but there is little funding for R and D

Not only this but currently Governements are trying to resolve the epidemic of HIV/AIDs which strains on resources as well as the economy so there is less money to provide bug nets etc.

GSK are in the 3rd phase of their Malaria vaccine, which they hope to use on children in 3-5 years time

they will then also use the profits (which will be no higher than 25%) to invest in other tropical diseases, and a 2nd generation of Malaria vaccinations

A problem is that malaria is becoming more resistant to vaccines, so more R and D has to be done to create a stronger vaccine

Tried putting DDT into rivers/waters to kill of the disease carrying mosquito and their larvea however instead the people were poisoned by the insecticide.

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Effects it has

Has large effects on the economy as there is less people in the work force

Therefore less money into the country and so the Governement cannot give funding to hospitals or improve health care

It also impacts the individuals and their family- they enter a cycle of poverty

Become ill therfore unable to work

unable to work means no money/subsistence farming

therefore less food to eat--> diet gets worse and so does nutrition

therefore more susceptible to other illnesses

get worse and can't work

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Effects it has

Has large effects on the economy as there is less people in the work force

Therefore less money into the country and so the Governement cannot give funding to hospitals or improve health care

It also impacts the individuals and their family- they enter a cycle of poverty

Become ill therfore unable to work

unable to work means no money/subsistence farming

therefore less food to eat--> diet gets worse and so does nutrition

therefore more susceptible to other illnesses

get worse and can't work

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HIV/AIDS

First noticed in 1959 and the first ARVS in '87

Now one of the leading causes of death in S Africa and reduces LE by 15-20

Has impacted the rate of development too

2006 400 million with HIV/AIDS- 60% in South and Sub Saharan Africa and 20% in South and South East Asia

How its spread:

Through un-protected sex- the increase no. cases means its even harder to control and reduce. Has become transalantic, started off through the gay community but now largely effects heterosexual people too.

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HIV/AIDS

First noticed in 1959 and the first ARVS in '87

Now one of the leading causes of death in S Africa and reduces LE by 15-20

Has impacted the rate of development too

2006 400 million with HIV/AIDS- 60% in South and Sub Saharan Africa and 20% in South and South East Asia

How its spread:

Through un-protected sex- the increase no. cases means its even harder to control and reduce. Has become transalantic, started off through the gay community but now largely effects heterosexual people too.

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Problems

ignorance is bliss- people don't want to find out therfore late onset of treatment means they get worse- there is the fear of discrimination from employers etc so thye are less likely to try to find out

Pallative care and treatment is bigger than the current budget for health care and so little can be done to support AIDS sufferers.

Many children become orphans and carers for other children so less go to school taking skilled people out of the work force

Some people then have the burden of their relatives children which makes it harder for famillies to cope

Solutions

UnAids are working with the G8 who failed to meet the demands of last times goals to ensure they work towards them for 2010 and...

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Problems

ignorance is bliss- people don't want to find out therfore late onset of treatment means they get worse- there is the fear of discrimination from employers etc so thye are less likely to try to find out

Pallative care and treatment is bigger than the current budget for health care and so little can be done to support AIDS sufferers.

Many children become orphans and carers for other children so less go to school taking skilled people out of the work force

Some people then have the burden of their relatives children which makes it harder for famillies to cope

Solutions

UnAids are working with the G8 who failed to meet the demands of last times goals to ensure they work towards them for 2010 and...

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