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UNIT 1

GLOBAL CHALLENGES

WORLD AT RISK AND GOING GLOBAL




Tulsi


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WORLD AT RISK
Global Hazards.

What are the main types of physical risks facing the world & how big a threat are they?

Physical risks facing the world today are...

Global warming.
Climate change.
Flooding ­ sea level rise.
Earthquakes.
Volcanoes'.
Hurricanes.
Tsunamis.
Drought.
Avalanches/mudslides.
Storm surges.
Forest fires.

Natural…

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How a hazard becomes a disaster.

If a hazard happens & significantly effects vulnerable humans it is a disaster.

Specific risks from global hazards.

Decreasing in severity as list descends.

1. Hazards to people.
Death & severe injury.
Disease & stress.
2. Hazards to goods.
Economic loss.
Infrastructure damage.
3.…

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Importance of Vulnerability.

Impacts of hazard are relative to the vulnerability than the hazards strength. People remain exposed to risk
for a variety of reasons.
Vulnerable people can't afford to build well even if building regulations are enforced.
Rapid urbanisation has forced the poor into high risk areas of cities.…

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Socioeconomic impacts of a 2C global temperature change;

53% of the Arctic tundra lost.
Polar bears wiped out in their Arctic homeland.
The ice sheet covering 80% of Greenland in irreversible retreat.
The end of the Inuit hunting culture due to disappearing prey & habitat.
An increase in insect borne…

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There are 3 main types of Geophysical hazard:

Volcanoes, Earthquakes ­ primary hazards ­ vast quantities of energy released very quickly and usually suddenly.

and secondary hazards Tsunamis ­ caused by earthquake under the ocean.

Earthquake hazards: shallow quakes near the surface cause the most shaking and damage.

Primary hazards:…

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Indentifying Hazard Hotspots.

Hazard hotspots; are likely to occur where plate boundaries meet storm belts in areas of high population, covering all of
the following...

Tectonic hazards or localised geomorphic hazards e.g. Landslide potential.
Hydro-meteorological hazards.
Vulnerability; number, density, wealth ect.

Map shows global disaster hotspots are found:

Along plate…

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· Warmer winter temperatures in S.E. USA.
· Colder winter temperatures from N.W. Pacific to the Great Lakes.
· Unsettled winters in N.E. & mid Atlantic U.S. states.
· Increase in Hurricanes in Caribbean & Southern USA.
· Been linked to floods in Bangladesh e.g. 1998.
· Droughts in mid-western…

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Retreating glaciers: Glaciers can be tracked by looking at past maps as well as looking at where rocks have
been deposited from it ­ these rocks can then be dated to show when they were deposited. Most glaciers have
retreated since 1850 ­ the end of the Little Ice Age.…

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Mitigation ­ policies which are meant to delay, reduce or prevent climate changes caused by global warming ­ such as
cutting CO2 emissions and increasing carbon sinks

Adaptation ­ policies, which are designed to reduce the existing impacts of global warming, such as protection against
flooding and coastal erosion.

The…

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