geography unit 3

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Global demand for energy

2 billion people do not have access to modern energy supply

1.6 billion people live without electricty

No access to engery is one aspect of multiple deprivation

India is becoming one of the world's largest energy consumers

Small percentage have access to clean energy efficient systems

Most people burn fuels such as wood which can cause serious health problems

UK 5 million rural households not connected to the main gas network

Most rely on liquified petroleum gas which is more expensive

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UK energy security

Major political issue

1980s and 1990s gas and oil from North Sea meant UK was virtually self-sufficient

North Sea production has started to decline

2020 gas imports could account for 80-90% of total demand

Coal accounts for 15% of UK's primary energy suppy- mostly imported

UK still has workable reserves of coal

UK relies on a mixture of forms of gas

UK needs to minimise risks such as disrupted supplies and increasing prices

Oil= 35% share of UK primary energy         Gas= 38% share of UK primary energy

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Europe's gas pipeline war

EU and Russia are involved in a battle over a pipeline

Nabucco pipeline will transport natural gas over 3000km from Caspian region to Austria

Cost of 8 billion euros

Gas supplies from Iran, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkenistan, Egypt and Syria

Will Make EU less dependent on Russian supplies

Russia shut off gas supply to Ukraine in 2006

Nabucco project has already accounted some problems

Iran and Syria are politically unstable

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Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries:

Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Libya, Algeria, Nigeria, Angola, Venezuela, Ecuador

-to protect the interests of the member countries

-to stabilise oil prices and eliminate harmful and unnecessary price fluctuations

-to ensure an efficent, economic, regular supply of oil to consuming nations

OPECs influence is now weaker as s ome significant oil producers have not joined

Russia, Norway, Mexico and USA

OPEC holds 2/3 of worlds oil reserves

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Nuclear power

China and India are building several reactors

USA experienced a rush of applications to build reactors

UK have government support for a new generation of nulcear power plants

2008- 439 reactors- 31 countries- 15% of worlds electricity

Estimated by 2030 output will be 520 gigawatts

Does not produce greenhouse gases

Uranium is relatively cheap and easy to mine

1986- Cherynobyl

Modern power stations have to pass a safety operations inspection they will still generate toxic waste which is difficult to manage politcally and technologically

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India and China compete over energy

India's need for energy has grown in the last decade

High economic growth rates, lack of energy- efficient technology, reliance on heavy industry

Power shortages and black-outs have been a major problem in India

Oil imports account for 2.3 of India's oil consumption

5 million barrels of proven oil reserves

ONGC invested $3.5 billion in overseas exploration and ONGC invested in offshore gas

Oil imports account for 1/3 of China's oil consumption
China's proven oil reserves stand at 18 million barrels
CNCP made overseas investments of $40 billion

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