Phisica Geography

Case studies


Energy Security

Three gorges dam

  • Built across the Yangtze
  • Costing $26 billion, expected to be returned by 2020
  • Displacing 1.3 million people to build the dam
  • Creates 22 gigawatts which accounts for 1/3 of the total UK consumption
  • Reduces coal consumption by 40-50 tonnes
  • 3000-4000 wetlands flooded and destroyed

ESPO pipeline (East Siberian Pipeline Organisation)

  • planned - To be 2600 miles long running from Siberia to Vladivostock running through lake baikal area.To cost $12 billion and be finished by 2009
  • Actual - The pipeline is 3,018 miles long, the pipeline had to be re-routed due to environmentalist campaigning for the pipeline to moved away from lake Baikal the habitat for the Amur leopard which was supported by UNESCO. 
  • The pipeline cost $14.4 billion due to the extension of the pipeline and rising steel costs the total cost sharply rose, but with current oil prices standing at $100.81 a barrel and the pipeline having the capacity to pipe 1600 barrels a day the costs will be quickly made up.
1 of 10

Energy Security

Orange Revolution

  • Gazrpom cut off supply to Ukraine in january 2006
  • This was due to the prices being quadrupled and ukraine not being able to afford the gas
  • But the supply cut also meant a 40% fall in other European countries 

Mycro-hydro Kenya

  • 96% of Kenyan's live without access to the elcetricity grid
  • 1/3 of income spent on kerosene for lighting
  • hours spent on collecting wood (usually women)
  • funded by practical action and UN
  • cheap and sustainable
  • harnessing the energy from capturing rainwater


2 of 10

Energy Security

Canada Tar Sands

  • $86 billion has being spent on frontier hydrocarbons
  • Alberta, a canadian tar sand production plant has the potential to produce 180 billion barrels
  • By 2011 production is expected to peak at 3.5 million barrels a day
  • The costs to extract is $15 per barrel per compared to $2 for conventional extraction 
  • For every barrel of oil produced, 2 to 5 barrels of water are needed
  • Could increases greenhouse gases by 100 million tonnes

Artic exploration

  • 25% of the worlds unexploited oil
  • Emerging markets and rising demand has lead to the price of oil rising exponentially and to make the race even more fierce
  • Russia Planted a titanium flag into the Lomonosov ridge in Auguat 2007
  • Due to global warming it means that the north pole is becoming easier to access
  • Enviromentalists worry about the effects such as burst oil under the ice caps will be detremental to the natural enviroment
3 of 10

Energy Security

BP Deep Water Horizon Oil Spill

  • 20th April 2010, In the gulf of Mexico
  • 35,000-60,000 barrels a day were lost
  • BP payed $7 million a day for clean up
  • Compared to 1st quater profits in 2010 of $61 million a day

Renewable Energy supply

  • Kramar junction, solar farm built in california
  • Arnie wanted to created cleaner california and by 2010 reduce dependancy on fossil fuels by 20%
  • Kramar junction is projected to power 150,000 homes
4 of 10

Energy Security

UK energy security

Woking - CHP (Combined Heat Power)

  • capturing the waste heat to warm water for domestic for indutrial use
  • The project started at Immingham power station
  • In 15 years they saved £5.4 million
  • 95% efficient
  • But cost £2 million to install the CHP
  • reduces house prices


  • Energy is made in local generators which are closer to the settlements which demand the energy
  • This will reduce the amount of waste energy which is lost through transporting the energy
  • energy use fell by 50%
  • co2 emmisions fell by 77%
  • The project funding was discontinued as the start up costs were too high
5 of 10

Energy Security

Low carbon home programme

  • Minimise co2 emission's
  • solar water heating accounts for 70% of homes hot water
  • 50% of electrcity
  • inspire developers
  • small scale
  • expensive
  • few grants and no funding

the scheme is to help promote 20 by 20 which is 20% of energy is expected to be renewable by 2020, with the current economic downterm and lack of development has meant that there has being very little progress made.

new zealand

Helen clark New-Zealand prime minister aims for 90% of energy made up from reneables, having achieved 70% by 2007.

6 of 10

Energy Security


  • Invested $50 billion into the construction of 32 nuclear power station
  • 300 more are expected to be built by 2050
  • Largest nuclear store
  • Securing a sustainable future, home to 5 of 10 largest solar panel manufacturers
  • China has budget 20x larger than Americas
  • 95% of Rizhao is powered by solar

OPEC (organisation of petroleum exporting countries)

  • 12 member states making a cartel
  • It was formed in 1960
  • The organisation is meant to control and maintain the price of petroleum and keeping it reasonably low
7 of 10

Water Security


  • 1 in 12 rely on the yangtze
  • 64% of water fall in south and 20% falls in North
  • Population is mainly found on coastal cities in the North
  • Recent industrial growth has meant an increase in pollution in the water meaning it is too dirty to be used on farmland
  • Same amount of water makes $200 in farming and $14,000 in industry

South North Water Diversion Project

  • Man made canal to transport water from South to North
  • 440,000 relocated

  • provide water for drought prone beijing


8 of 10

Water Security

Israel Water Supply - consumes 500 billion more litres than it recieves naturally, 35 million more people, 65% of rain water is lost through evaportaion, 1.5% population increase.

National Water Carrier System

  • Israeli government control the water system as of 1959
  • drip feed irrigation systems were developed to take water to the negev desert settlements
  • also reduce the consuption of water, evaportation and salinisation

Mangavat Scheme

  • Importing 50 million cubic metres of water per year
  • This was agreed in 2004 between Israel and Turkey, Short term fix

Increase cost per unit

  • demand more conscientious water management, real value prices to reflect cost of supply and ecosytem management
9 of 10

Water Security

Desalinisation master plan

  • Desalinisation plant in Ashkelton
  • Provides a reliable and predicatble supply of water of 5-6% of Israels needs
  • Each plant takes 3 years to build and are very expensive
  • They each require indibidual power plants
  • Are prime targets for terroism

Importing virtual water

  • Trading in crops and service which require alot of water
  • importing a tonne of wheat is equivalent to 1000 cubic metres of water
  • 1lb of beef is 1857 gallons of water

Reducing agriculture consuption

  • shifting the economy away from water hungry industries such as farming, or recycling waste water for agriculture usecould lower overall consuption by 65%, but would rely on imported foods ans products
10 of 10


No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »