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The Principles of Training
If physical fitness and skills are to be maintained or improved, then training has to take place.
There are four recognised principles that have to be applied to training schedules if training is to be
effective.
Specificity
Different sports make different demands of the performer and so the training should take into
account those demands.
Overload
Overloading body systems with higher work rates and increased loads causes the body to respond
to these extra demands by improving its performance.
There are three ways in which overload can be attained:
·Frequency is the number of times training occurs.
·Raising the workload increases intensity.
·Duration, or how long training takes place, is determined by the activity and the fitness of the
performer.
Progression
Although overload is necessary to improve physical fitness and skills level, this overload has to
be progressive.
The chances are that the performer will fail in the attempt and become de-motivated or injure them
self in the attempt.
Reversibility
This is the reverse of progression.
Once training and performances are reduced, the body naturally adapts to new circumstances…read more

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Methods of Training
Weight Training ­ Improve Muscular Strength
· You can train by increasing the tension in a muscle without changing it's length.
·By pushing against a stationary object.
·Wall Sits
·You can contract muscles to make limbs move
·Rep = Completed movement. Sets = Group of reps
·Overload achieves by increase weight - Lifting weights more times
Continuous Training - Means No Rests
·Exercising at a constant rate
·Heart rate is between 60% and 80%
·Improves...
·Cardiovascular endurance
·Muscular endurance
Fartlek Training ­ Changes of speed
·Can be made easy or hard
·Involves changes of intensity and activity
·Without stopping
·Mix of aerobic and anaerobic activity…read more

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Methods of Training
Circuit Training ­ Loads of Different Exercises
·Between 6 and 10 stations
·Each station has a different activity
·Makes it more interesting
·Can be adapted for any skill/fitness level
Cross Training ­ Overall Performance
·Activities that focus on one muscle group
·Whilst waiting for another set to recover
·More interesting due to variety
·You can adapt activity to suit you
Interval training ­ Fixed Patterns of Exercise
·High Intensity and Low Intensity exercise intervals
·Aerobic after Anaerobic (or vice versa)
·Makes heart and lungs work harder
Flexibility Training ­ Improves Suppleness
·Static ­ Gradually stretching muscles than holding it
·Dynamic ­ Slowly increasing range of movement.
·PNF ­ Contracting the muscle before the muscle is stretched…read more

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Skill-Related Training
Agility Training
Strength, speed and balance are important elements of agility and any training of these will
result in improved agility.
Effects of Training
Body movements can be made quicker. More unpredictable movements can be made to beat an
opponent.
Balance Training
Balance requires delicate control and good static strength in relation to body weight.
There are two types of balances, static balances, which are positions of stillness and dynamic
balances, which are maintained while the athlete is moving.
Effects of Training
Static balance - fine muscle control and stability balance.
Dynamic balance - better control in more extreme conditions.
Co-ordination Training
Practice is the best form of training co-ordination and specific practice for individual sports.…read more

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Skill-Related Training
Effects of Training
Movements appear smooth and flowing. Movements become more effective.
Reaction Training
It is highly unlikely that reaction times can be improved, however response time can be
improved.
Response time is the total time taken to complete a response to a given stimulus.
Response time = reaction time + movement time.
Response time can only improve with experience where situations become more familiar and
the athletes are able to think and act more quickly to a given situation.
Effects of Training
Faster muscle responses. There are fewer movement errors. There is improved decision making
in choice reaction situations - giving improved performance.
Training for Timing
Training to improve timing involves repetition of activities until speed and distance have been
learned.…read more

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