# GCSE MUSIC - RHYTHM & METRE

- Basic rhythm values

- Time signatures

?

## Rhythm Values - Semibreve

• 4 beats
• When you have more than one it looks the same.
1 of 12

## Rhythm Values - Minim

• 2 beats
• When you have more than one it looks the same.
2 of 12

## Rhythm Values - Crotchet

• 1 beat
• When you have more than one it looks the same.
3 of 12

## Rhythm Values - Quaver

• 1/2 beat
• When you have more than one it looks different.
4 of 12

## Semiquaver

• 1/4 beat
• When you have more than one it looks different.
5 of 12

## Rhythm Values - Dotted Rhythms

• A dot adds half the value of the note again, e.g.:
6 of 12

## Time Signatures - Structure

2 - top number referes to the number of beats per bar.

4 - bottom number refers to the type of beat (2 = minim, 4 = crotchet).

7 of 12

## Time Signatures - Simple Time

In a simple time signature, each beat of the pulse divides into 2. If it is simple you can count along going '1 and 2 and...' etc. or you can say the word apple along with it.

- 2/2

- 2/4

- 3/4

- 4/4

8 of 12

## Time Signatures - Compound Time

In a compound time signature, each beat of the pulse is divided into three. If it is compound you can count along going '1 and a 2 and a...' etc. or you can say the word pineapple along with it.

- 6/8 (feel 2 beats per bar)

- 9/8 (feel 3 beats per bar)

- 12/8 (feel 4 beats per bar)

9 of 12

## Metronome Mark

A metronome mark tells you how fast a piece of music is as an alternative to an Italian term. θ == 100 means that there are 100 crotchet beats per minute. Therefore, θ == 60 means that there are 60 crotchet beats per minute (1 per second), θ == 120 means that there are 120 crotchet beats per minute (2 per second).

• If you are asked to work out a metronome mark, use the second hand on a clock to help you estimate.
10 of 12

## Italian Terms for Tempo

• Largo - very slow, stately
• Lento - slow
• Andante - walking pace, medium speed
• Moderato - medium speed
• Allegro - fast
• Vivace - lively, fast
• Presto - fast (faster than allegro)
• Accelerando or accel. - gradually getting faster
• Rallentando or rall. - gradually getting slower
• Rubato - with some freedom of time
11 of 12

## Rhythmic Devices

• Syncopation - an off-beat rhythm. If you clap the pulse, most of the notes of the suncopated rhythm will happen between your claps.
• Cross rhythms/polyrhythms/bi-rhythms - layering more than one rhythm on top of another. This is used a lot in African drumming among other types of music.
• Ostinato - a repeating pattern.
• Swung - where the first of each quaver in a pair is longer than the other. It sounds a little like a dotted rhythm. If you say 'one and two and three and four and...' rather then each word having the same amount of time, make the numbers a little longer and the 'and's quite short.
• Dotted rhythm - a rhythm where every other note is dotted and so longer than the second.
• Hemiola - in a 3/4 time signature, where three minims are used giving the effect of a temporary move to 2/4.
• Rhythmic augmentation - every note value of a rhythm is doubles making it sound slower.
• Rhythmic diminution - every other note value of a rhythm is halved making it sound faster.
12 of 12