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And The Glory Of The Lord

Handel

1741

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Melody

  • 1st idea, 2 characteristic features
    • triadic
    • stepwise scale ending
  • one note/word per syllable (syllabic)
  • 2nd idea
    • 2 one-bar descending sequences
    • melismatic (several notes to a syllable)
  • 3rd idea
    • repetitive
    • gives impression of firm statement
  • 4th idea
    • long repeated notes for emphasis
    • doubles the part with tenors and basses 
  • ideas are all different so that each has its own character when combined
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Tonality

  • A major
    • modulates to dominant key of E major. Also modulates to Bmajor -> dominant key of E major.
    • Minor keys avoided because it's happy.
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Rhythm, Metre and Tempo

  • 3/4 time
  • Allegro tempo
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Harmony

  • Hemiola rhythms
  • Diatonic chords- notes/chords belonging to a key
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Texture

  • Monophonic, homophonic and polyphonic
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Forms, Types Of Works and Style

  • Oratorio
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Instruments, Voices, Timbre and Expression

  • 2 violins
  • Viola
  • 4 voices (soprano, alto, tenor, bass)
  • Continuo bass
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Raindrop Prelude Op. 28

Chopin

1839

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Melody

  • Decorated with ornaments e.g. acciaccatura in bar 4 and a turn in bar 11.
  • In section B the melody is in the bass line with a narrower range and longer notes.
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Tonality

  • Db Major
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Rhythm, Metre and Tempo

  • Time signature is 4/4
  • Use of septuplet in bars 4 and 23.
  • Rubato is used in the recording, this means that it is played at a flexible tempo for added expressive effect.
  • Repeated quavers are a unifying rhythmic feature throughout this piece
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Harmony

  • Diatonic harmonies with the occasional chromaticism. 
  • Modulates to the enharmonic tonic minor.
  • Sections A and B both end in imperfect cadences but the whole prelude ends in a perfect cadence.
  • Dominant pedal can be heard throughout most of the piece.
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Texture

  • Homophonic texture (apart from 2 bars at the end which are monophonic).
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Forms, Types Of Works and Style

  • Structure
    • Section A: Db Major quavers in the left hand and the melody in the right hand. 
    • Section B: C# Minor quavers in the right hand and melody in the left hand.
    • Section A: Db Major but this time finishes with a brief coda. 
      - The piece is written in ternary form (ABA)
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Instruments, Voices, Timbre and Expression

  • Written for piano.
  • Uses the middle and lower range of the piano.
  • This work is not virtuosic and the focus is on the legato tone. 
  • There is a wide range of dynamics (pp-ff).
  • Lots of crescendos and diminuendos so there are no sudden contrasts or changes in dynamics.
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Peripetie

Arnold Schoenberg

1909

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Melody

  • Short fragmented motifs
  • Disjunct (with many large leaps) sounding very angular.
  • Octave displacement
  • Inversion
  • Augmentation
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Tonality

Atonal

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Harmony

  • Dissonant harmony
  • Hexachords
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Texture

  • Largely contrapuntal
  • Complex textures
  • Imitation and inversion
  • Three different canons
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Rhythm, Metre and Tempo

  • The metre changes between 3/4, 2/4 and 4/4
  • Tempo is Sehr Rasch- very quick
  • Complex and varied rhythms changing quickly.
  • Layered rhythmic patterns
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Instruments, Voices, Timbre and Expression

  • Large orchestra
  • Instrumentation changes rapidly throughout
  • Contrasts in timbre
  • Instruments played at the extremes of their range
  • Unusual effects used
  • Sudden changes in dynamics leading to extreme contrasts between ppp and fff
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Forms, Types Of Works and Style

  • Free rondo form
  • Five sections (ABACA)
  • Serialism
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Composers, dates,historical periods

  • From the Five Orchestral Pieces composed in 1909
  • Other expressionists = Berg & Webern
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Something's Coming

Leonard Bernstein

From West Side Story

1957

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Melody

  • Syllabic
  • Tritones*
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Tonality

  • Dmajor
  • Contrasting sections in Cmajor x2
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Harmony

*

  • Frequent use of the sharpened fourth and flattened seventh
  • Tenor's last noe is a flattened seventh
    • sounds unresolved. 
    • fits well with Tony's sense of expectation
  • Hermony is tonal and jazz influenced, frequent 7th chords and other added note chords.
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Texture

  • Homophonic
  • Three main ideas
    • repeated riff
    • short, mainly syncoated chords (bars 21-26)
    • fast, um-cha accompaniment 
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Rhythm, Metre and Tempo

  • Metre changes between 3/4 and 2/4
  • Changes of metre, fast tempo and syncopation maintain a feeling of excitement and anticipation.
  • Accompaniment largely made up of an off-beat bass part with off beat chords.
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Instruments, Voices, Timbre and Expression

  • Solo tenor voice accompanied by a band of woodwind, brass, percussion and strings.
  • So the band doesn't overpower the solo singer...
    • quiet dynamics
    • soft timbres
    • homophonic texture
  • 'The air is humming' strings use harmonics (very high notes) & play tremolo
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Forms, Types Of Works and Style

  • Three main themes
    • quiet, syncopated opening theme
    • loud, strident theme 2/4
    • lyrical, slow-moving theme
  • Jazz/musical
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Electric Counterpoint

Minimalism

Steve Reich

1987

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Melody

  • Made up of a one-bar motif repeated continuously to form an ostinato.
  • Motif introduced in different guitar parts creating a canon.
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Tonality

  • Largely in Gmajor, some shorter sections in Ebmajor
  • Entirely diatonic
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Harmony

  • Hexatonic scales such as the first motif
    • uses six notes
  • Conventional harmonic progressions not used
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Texture

  • Builds up melody
    • built up through note addition
  • Polyphonic/Contrapuntal 
  • Movement builds up in 3 layers
    • a syncopated quaver motif introduced in the live guitar and 4 guitars one at a time
    • new syncopated quaver motif in the bass guitars
    • sustained motif built around 3 chords begins in live guitar and transferred in other parts
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Rhythm, Metre and Tempo

  • Main metre is 3/2
    • 12 quavers per bar
  • Very fast
  • Little rhythmic variety. Mostly repeated patterns and quavers
  • Frequent syncopation
  • Metrical displacement
    • playing the same motif in different parts and not in synch.
  • Polymetre towards the end (different parts in different metres)
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Instruments, Voices, Timbre and Expression

  • Live guitar accompanied by 7 guitars and 2 bass guitars which are pre-recorded.
  • Live guitar is amplified to bleng in well with the backing tape.
  • Overall dynamic remains fairly constant throughout
  • Parts gradually fade out in a number of places
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All Blues

Jazz

Miles Davis

1959

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Melody

  • Head melody characterised by rising 6ths followed by improvised solos:
    • 1. Trumpet solo for 4 choruses. Short, syncopated motifs.
    • 2. Alto sax solo for 4 choruses. Quicker notes and a wider range. More virtuosic.
    • 3. Tenor sax solo for 4 choruses. Fast scales and quick runs. Very virtuosic.
    • 4. Piano solo for 2 choruses. Calmer, simpler melody leading into parallel chords.
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Tonality

  • Gmajor with a flattened seventh.
  • Mixoldian mode.
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Harmony

  • Based on the 12 bar blues sequence

1   G7          7   G7

2   G7          8   G7

3   G7          9   D7

4   G7         10  Eb7/D7

5   Gm7      11   F/G

6   Gm7      12   F/G6

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Texture

  • Simple texture
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Rhythm, Metre and Tempo

  • Score notated in 6/4 
    • Described as a jazz waltz because each 6/4 bar sounds like two bars in 3/4 time
  • Performed with swing quavers
  • Frequent syncopation
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Instruments, Voices, Timbre and Expression

Frontline

  • Miles Davis on trumpet
  • Julian Adderley on alto sax
  • John Coltrane on tenor sax

Rhythm section

  • Bill Evans on piano
  • Paul Chambers on bass
  • Jimmy Cobb on drums

Techniques

  •  
    • Snare drum played with wire brushes at the start of the piece
    • Bass plays pizzicato throughout
    • Trumpet played with Harmon mute for the head
    • Piano plays a tremolo at the start
    • Once the solos begin, the piano starts comping (accomp. with chords and short melodic ideas.


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Structure

Can be split into 5 sections

  • Intro- opening 4 bars played by the rhythm section, followed by the 4-bar riff in parallel thirds.
  • Head 1- head melody played twice, followed by riff.
  • Solos- for trumpet, alto sax, tenor sax and piano; each followed by riff.
  • Head 2- head melody played twice, followed by riff.
  • Coda- a solo for muted trumpet.
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Grace

Jeff Buckley

1994

Alt Rock

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Melody

  • Vocal part has an improvised quality and wide range
  • Most vocal phrases falling, reflecting the melancholy mood.
  • Frequent ornamentation
  • Glissandos (slides) between notes, indicated by a diagonal line.
  • Most word setting is syllabic (some long melismas.)
  • Passage of vocalisation (wordless singing) in the bridge.
  • Use of falsetto for high notes.
  • Word painting
    • 'cries' in verse 1
    • 'pain' and 'leave' in the bridge
    • 'slow' in verse 3
    • 'drown my name' in the coda
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Tonality

  • E minor
  • Often ambiguous
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Texture

  • Thickens towards the end, epecially in the coda
  • Drums and guitars play big parts, synthesiser and strings less prominent- used to add effects/ vary the texture.
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Rhythm, Metre and Tempo

  • 12/8 compound metre with 4 dotted crotchet beats per bar
  • Bass drum on beats 1 and 3, snare drum accents the back beats 2 and 4
  • Frequent syncopation in vocal melody (rhythmically very free) and in the bass line.
  • Cross rhythms
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Instruments, Voices, Timbre and Expression

  • Buckley accompanied by guitars, bass guitar, synthesiser, strings and drum kit.
  • Guitars score on tab
  • Guitars in drop D tuning
  • Modulation on the synth at the start
  • Distortion and flanging on guitars intensify sound in the coda
  • Over-dubbing in guitar parts creating a thicker sound. Extra vocal parts in the bridge produced through over-dubbing.
  • EQ in the final verse to remove lower frequencies of Buckley's voice.
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Structure

Intro            Instrumental

Verse 1       Voice

Chorus 1     Voice 'wait in the fire'

Intro            Instrumental

Verse 2       Voice

Chorus 2     Voice 'wait in the fire'

Bridge         Voice (vocalisation)

Intro            Instrumental

Verse 3       Voice

Coda           Voice (improv)

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Why Does My Heart Feel So Bad

Moby

1999

Club/ Dance

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Melody

  • Based on 2 samples from a gospel choir in 1953
  • Sample A used in verses, male singer
  • Sample B used in chorus, female singer
  • Samples manipulated to change the meaning
  • 'Vintage' feel because Moby left the surface noise
  • Samples are looped to create simple repetitive melody
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Tonality

  • Verses in dorian mode
  • Choruses in Cmajor
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Harmony

  • Entirely diatonic
  • Made up of 3 simple, repeated chord progressions each lasting 8 bars
  • 1st sample to Am Em G D
  • 2nd sample harmonised in 2 different ways
    • C Am C Am 
    • F C F C
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Texture

  • Built up as individual tracks are introduced
  • After breakdown, texture becomes thinner as piano and drums drop out
  • CONTRASTS IN TEXTURE
    • varying instrumentation in each 8 bar section
    • use of silence
    • static chords
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Rhythm, Metre and Tempo

  • Song in 4/4 steady tempo of 98bpm
  • Drum loop made up of a backbeat (drum solo) sampled from a hip-hop track
    • bass drum on beats 1 and 3
    • strong accents on backbeats 2 and 4 from snare drum
  • Syncopation in piano, vocal and synth string parts
  • Rhythms vary between sections for contrast
    • piano pattern changes at the end of verse 1
    • static chords in chorus 2
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Instruments, Voices, Timbre and Expression

Technology

  • Synth- produces string, bass and piano sounds
  • Sampler
  • Drum machine
  • Sequencer

Effects

  • Panning- sense of movement in piano intro
  • Electronic ghostings-  remnants of background noise
  • Reverb and delay- throughout and in one-bar breakdown
  • Echoes created through delay processed with EQ to remove lower frequences
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Structure

  • Verse-Chorus structure
  • Looped samples
  • After verse 2, breakdown- one bar's silence

Intro - Verse - Chorus - Verse - Breakdown - Chorus - Verse

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Skye Waulking Song

Capercallie

2000

Folk

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Melody

  • Pentatonic
  • Low voice register
    • vocal tenor clef, music sounds an octave lower
  • Mainly syllabic
  • Alternates between one bar Gaelic call phrases and phrases using vocables, nonsense syllables, in response
  • Instruments play short motifs and counter-melodies mostly based on vocal phrases
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Tonality

  • Gmajor
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Harmony

  • Entirely diatonic
  • 3 main chords G Em C
  • Modal feel because dominant D chord is avoided
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Texture

Layered texture created through:

  • Rhythmic pattern on drum kit
  • Bass line played by bass guitar
  • Chords on synth and accordian
  • Main melody sung by voice
  • Countermelodies on other instruments (violin, viano)
  • N.C = no chord - accompaniment drops out
  • 'With modulation' = modulation (digital effect) applied to synth making pitch fluctuate like the cluster chord that opens the song
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Rhythm, Metre and Tempo

  • 12/8 (compound quadruple metre)
  • Frequent syncopation in vocal and instrumental countermelodies
  • Hi-hat pattern at the start of the song creates cross rhythms
    •  
      • full band enters, hi-hat rhythm changes emphasising 12/8
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Instruments, Voices, Timbre and Expression

  • 3 most unusual instruments
    • Wurliter Piano (type of early electric piano)
    • Uilleann pipes (like bagpipes but with a softer tone)
    • Bouzouki (type of lute from Greece)
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Structure

  • Vocal line alternates between 4 different one-bar phrases in a call and response pattern
    • Phrase 1 call (in Gaelic, starts on a high D)
    • Refrain 1 response (vocables, mid B)
    • Phrase 2 call (Gaelic, low D)
    • Refrain 2 response (vocables, high E)
  • Overall...
    • Intro: instrumental after which the voice enters
    • Verse 1: voice and accompaniment
    • Verse 2: voice and accompaniment, includes instrumental break
    • Coda: short vocal phrases then accompaniment fades out
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Rag Desh

Performed by Anoushka Shankar

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Instrumentation

  • Sitar- plucked string instrument
    • 7 main strings, 12 sympathetic strings
  • Tabla- pair of drums
    • right one called a Dayan, is smaller, wooden and higher pitched.
    • left one called a Bayan, is metal
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Rhythm

  • Two tals
    • Jhaptal- 10 beat cycle (2+3+2+3)
    • Tintal- 16 beat cycle (4+4+4+4)
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Structure

1. Alap

  • Sitar only, slow, no regular pulse
  • Introduces notes and mood
  • Melodic line decorated with slides and pitch bends

2. Gat

  • Tabla enters after a few seconds
  • Fixed composition, moderate tempo
  • Sitar and tabla improv. Sitar's improv based on Gat, tabla's improv. based on tal.
  • Improvs end with a tihai (phrase repeated 3 times) ending on the sam
  • Towards end tempo increases

3. Jhalla

  • Fast
  • Sitar strings strummed for rhythmic excitement
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Rag Desh

Performed by Chiranji Lal Tanwar

This version is a bhajan- Hindu devotional song

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Instrumentation

Chiranji (voice) accompanied by...

  • Sarod- plucked string instrument
  • Sarangi- bowed string instrument
  • Pakhawaj- drum
  • Tabla
  • Pair of small cymbals
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Rhythm

  • 8 beat cycle called Keherwa tal (2+2+2+2)
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Structure

1. Alap

  • Sarangi and the voice introduce notes of the rag
  • Slow
  • No regular pulse

2. Bhajan

  • Tabla joins in playing in Keherwa tal
  • Sung verse followed by short solos for sanangi and sarod
  • Tanwar decorates important words with melismas and ornaments
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Rag Desh

Performed by Steve Gorn and Benjy Wetheimer

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Instrumentation

  • Bansuri- bamboo flute, holes instead of keys
  • Esraj- bowed string instrument
  • Shruti box- electronic instrument that plays a drone
  • Swaramandel- plucked string instrument
  • Tabla
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Rhythm

Two tals

  • Rupak tal- 7 beat cycle (3+2+2)
  • Ektal- 12 beat cycle (2+2+2+2+2+2)
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Structure

1. Alap

  • Starts with drone on D and A
  • Bansuri introduces notes and mood, esraj then takes over before instruments alternate improvising
  • Slow tempo and no regular pulse

2. Gat 1

  • Slow gat in rupak tal
  • Starts with bansuri solo, tabla enters after 30secs
  • Bansuri plays composed gat shortly after, bansuri and tabla improv around gat and tal
  • End of section finishes with a tihai

3. Gat 2

  • Fast gat in ekta; starts with tabla solo
  • Improv becomes more elaborate, bansuri plays tans (fast scales)
  • Piece ends with three tihais
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Yiri

Koko

African Music

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Melody

  • Balafons mostly play (often falling) short patterns
    • tending to emphasise Gb and Db (tonic and dominant)
    • balafon has solo breaks between choruses sounding more virtuosic
  • During choruses, group sings together in unison. Like the balafon, the chorus has short, falling phrases emphasising Gb and Db
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Tonality

  • Gb major
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Harmony

  • Most of the music is hexatonic- based on a six note scale (without F)
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Texture

Layered texture including

  • Monophonic texture in intro (balafon solo)
  • Occasional heterophonic textures
    • when 2 balafons play different version of the same tune at the same time
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Rhythm, Metre and Tempo

  • Mainly 4/4
  • Intro in a free tempo, rest of piece has a steady pulse
  • Syncopation frequently used
  • During a vocal solo the balafon plays semiquavers in groups of 3 creating crossrhythms
  • Vocal soloist makes use of triplets
  • Drums play rhythmic ostinato throughout
    • consists of a quaver and 2 semi quavers
    • djembe plays occasional fills on top
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Instruments, Voices, Timbre and Expression

  • Balafon- like a wooden xylophone
    • gourds hang beneath to make it sound more resonant
  • Djembe- drum, played with the hands
  • Talking drum- drum played with a hooked stick. Can be used to imitate speech
  • Members of Koko sing
    • split into soloist and chorus
  • A little dynamic variation
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Structure

Three sections

1. Introduction

  • short intro is a balafon solo played using tremolo

2. Main section

  • drums play ostinato, strong clear pulse
  • music alternates between balafon solos and choruses
  • middle of section there is a vocal solo
    • call and response used between soloist and choir

3. Coda

  • short phrase for balafon played five times in slightly varied versions
    • drum ostinato interrupted by rests, and a bell is sounded to mark the end
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