GCSE Music Edexcel! AOS1

Key facts for each set work!

  • Created by: Sarah Gee
  • Created on: 02-05-11 17:17

HANDEL - And the glory of the Lord. (Messiah)

Structure and Texture:
- Is a famous ORATORIO. (a large musical composition including an orchestra, a choir, and soloists)
- Mainly Homophonic (all parts moving together), but in some places Polyphonic (parts weaving in and out of each other).
- Has 4 musical Ideas/Motifs. "And the glory of the lord", "shall be reavealed", "and all flesh shall see it together", "for the mouth of the lord hath spoken it" LISTEN TO THESE.

Tempo and Metre:
- Its in ALLEGRO. (quick and lively)
- Slows down at the end marked Adagio (slower last 4 bars)
- Its in 3/4 (but sometimes feels in 2/4. - this is called Hemiola.) 

Harmony and Tonality:
- the peice is in A MAJOR. but modulates to E MAJOR twice, and B MAJOR once. (the peice sounds happy and joyful hense the major keys.) 
- Motif/Idea 4 is sung in Unison and in Harmony with 2 peices for the Tenors and Basses Voices.
- Ends in PLAGAL CADENCE (chord IV, chord I. song sounds finished "AMEN") 

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HANDEL - And the glory of the Lord. (Messiah)

- Written for 2 Violins, 1 Viola, Cello/organ, Soprano, Alto, Tenor And Bass VOICES.
- The basso continuo is played by the Cello / Organ. 
- Idea 1 is Syllabic (each syllable has its own note) with the music, as is Idea 4.
- Idea 4, most of the idea is on the same note (A) - called PEDAL POINT/NOTE (this is a held-on note) 
For most of the chorus, the orchestea Doubles the vocal parts. (instruments often play in unison with the singers) this makes the words sound accented. 

Extra Notes:
- Has a 10-bar ochestral introduction
- Divided into three sections. Amajor, Emajor and Bmajor. (the keys modulate.) 
- Handel introduces the ideas simply and seperately then later on develops that and weaves different ideas together.
- In idea 2 "revealed" is spread over a Descending Sequence. which is MELISMATIC (the opposite of syllabic) 
this song was in the BAROQUE period! (1600-1750)
- this piece is unmarked with dynamics. 

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MOZART - Symphpony No. 40 (GMINOR)

Structure and Texture:
- In Sonata Form: Exposition, (Themes are exposed) Development, (Themes are developed) and Recapitulation (Themes are recapped/played again.) There's No Introduction. 
- The Exposition is made up of the 1st subject, transition/bridge, 2nd subject and codettaThen goes into Development and then Recapitulation. 
- Has 2 subjects.  1st is (bars 1-28) In GMINOR but modulates to BflatMAJOR bars 20-28. 2nd is (bars 44-72) in BflatMAJOR..
- Polyphonic in the recapitulation (bars 202-2010). but majority is Homophonic.

Tempo and Metre:
- Its metre is in 4/4. 
- marked Molto Allegro (very quick). the whole way through the piece.

Harmony and Tonality:
- Starts in GMINOR and modulates to BflatMAJOR then back to GMINOR in the exposition. The development starts in F#MINOR and goes through diff keys. The recapitulation goes through a lot of keys and finishes on GMINOR
- Ends in a PERFECT CADENCE (chords I and IV) - in G minor.

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MOZART - Symphpony No. 40 (GMINOR)

Instrumentation And Dynamics:
- Symphony No. 40 was written for a Small Orchestra. (but late adapted by Mozart, that included clarinets)
- 2 French Horns, one in G and one in Bflat. (because of the two main key sigs.)
- No percussion and no Brass except Horns. Used 1 Flute, 2 Oboes, 2 Clarinets, 2 Bassoons, 2 Violins, 1 Viola, and a Double Bass.
- Unusual Piano Dynamics (at the beginning) MARKED PIANO. (p)
Trasition mark FORTE (F) with lots of SFORZANDOS (SFZ)
Ornaments (trills) are used in the woodwind in the 2nd Subject. Lots of Imitation between bassons and Clarinets in the Codetta. 

Extra Notes:
- Sequences are sometimes played in Canon. (in the recapitulation).
- He uses Pedal Points in the development (held-on notes).
- Mozart wrote over 40 symphonies! and was an Austrian Composer. 
- We study the 1st Movement from the symphony No. 40.
- Both ideas are played by the VIOLINS. and the 2 parts are playing in octaves.
- In the CLASSICAL period (1750-1820) 

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CHIOPIN - Raindrop Prelude (in Db MAJOR)

Structure And Texture:
- In Ternary Form (A-B-A Stucture) with a coda to finish. has a CONTRASTING B section. (Through Melody, Dynamic, Key Change etc....)
- Homophonic Texture (Melody and Accompniant) and a Polyphonic mini cadenza bars 82-83.

Harmony And Tonality:
- Section A is in Db MAJOR. Section B is in C# MINOR. Then returns to Db MAJOR. for the 2nd section A and coda. (These keys are enharmonic equivalent. and C# Minor is the tonic key of Db Major.)
- The Raindrop Note: is Ab in Section A, and F and G# In section B. Its REPEATED!!!
- The melody goes through Bb MINOR and Db MAJOR (These are relative Keys of each other.)

- Is marked SOSTENUTO (slow and laid back tempo)
- Is marked RITENUTO in the last 2 bars (gradually slower)


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CHIOPIN - Raindrop Prelude (in Db MAJOR)

Techniques Used:
- Ornaments are used such as turns. to sound more like raindrops. Heard in the opening section.
- Pedal technique is used all the way through (to hold on the raindrop note) that is repeated all the way through the piece.
- The melody inverts into the left hand in Section B to make it sound more "SOTTO VOICE" (in a undertone or whisper). 
REPETITION!!!! (of the raindrop Ab/G# running note) 
Dramatic B Section . Through CONTRASTS of dynamics as opposed to section A. Fortissomo contrasted to piano. Accents are also used on the raindrop note. 
- "Smorzando" towards the end of the second section A (dying away) 

Extra Notes:
- Chopin was a Polish Composer
- This piece is in the ROMANTIC PERIOD! (1820-1899)
- The piano was developed: Number of Keys increased, Frame changed from Wood to Metal, Pedals became developed (sustain and dynamic pedals), The piano changed shape and got bigger and louder. (bigger dynamic range).
- Orchestras got much bigger. brass got more valves. woodwind bigger.
Prelude's were introductions to main pieces, but now are more individual. 

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Dan Conway


The Mozart piece certainly ends on a perfect cadence, but this consists of chords V and I (in order). A cadence of chords VI and I is a plagal cadence (sometimes known as the amen cadence due to its prominence in hymnal music).

Otherwise, these notes are great and really helpful for me to revise for my Year 10 internal exam.

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