GCSE Geography AQA - Changing Urban Environments

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More rapid urbanisation in less developed countries - less % in urban areas.

Less rapid urbanisation in more developed countries - higher % in urban areas.

Rate of urban growth increasing in least developed countries.

In 2010 - over half world's population live in towns & cities.

Causes for urbanisation - rural-urban migration (push & pull factors) & natural increase (birth rate exceeds the death rate)

More developed countries - more rapid in 19th century - new farm machinery caused unemployment, moved to cities; work was main pull factor

Less developed countries - push: drought, floods, poor crop yields, lack of land, poverty, unemployment, poor services; pull: earn more money, better standard of living, housing, education & health

Rural-urban migration linked to natural increase - many young migrate, have children in urban areas - natural increase

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Morphology, Issues With Housing & Brownfield Sites

CBD - Central Business District - main shopping & service area; main place of work; easily accessible (middle); historic core

Inner City - built before 1918 in UK; terraced houses/high rise; high density; iron grid street pattern

Inner Suburbs - built after 1945; bigger house; lower density

Outer Suburbs - built after 1945; bigger drives & gardens; more space; low density

Rural-urban fringe - where urban area meets countryside

Issues with housing - increase in population: up 7% since 1971 (UK); 7 million of UK's population live alone; increase in housing: up 30% since 1971; caused by increase in single households - rent/buy younger, marry later, divorce, live longer

Brownfield Sites - already roads, near shops & work, transport, water & electricity already provided, less unused land, easier to get planning permission

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Greenfield Sites, Brownfield Development & Congest

Greenfield sites - no restricting roads, land cheaper, gardens, site doesn't need clearing, more appealing to live, some local shops

Strategies in UK to develop brownfield sites:

  • UDCs (Urban Development Corporations) - set up in 80s & 90s, use public funding, improve inner city areas, attract private investment
  • City Challenge - local authorites design a scheme, submit bid for funding,involves local community & private organisations
  • Sustainable Community - offers housing, employment & recreation opportunites, broad balance with environment, good quality of life

Why are city centres so congested with traffic? - narrow & old roads; most don't live in CBD so must travel in; some prefer driving to public transport; more people own cars (27% 2 cars, 45% 1 car); easier to use own car; may want to go to specific place in CBD - go by car; big youthful population; main place of work

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Problems With Congestion & Segregation

Problems caused by traffic congestion - air pollution; noise pollution; looks unpleasant; respiratory problems; conflict with cyclists; costs & difficulties of parking; stress for motorists; worse in rush hour; badly effects environment, plants & animals

Segregation - occurs where people of particular ethnic group choose to live with others of the same ethnic group, separate from others

Reasons for segregation - support from others, feel safe, sense of belonging; family culture, same language & beliefs; safety in numbers, stronger as a group; specialist facilities - mosques, shops etc; employment factors - low paid, only afford cheap housing in inner city - in Leeds tried to improve children's achievements, involve them, increase employment opportunities

Where do ethnic people live? - inner city areas - cheaper; more access to possible employment; if ethnic group already live there, migrants may move there too

Problems - racism, violence, graffiti, do low paid work - area deprived & run down, stigmatised, go into decline

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Reducing Segregation

Reducing Segregation - increase children's achievements, better qualifications & higher paid; increase employment, basic skills, mix with other groups; increase community involvement, needs are understood; provide facilities that encourage community to meet

Cities in developing countries - struggle to provide adequate supply of essential services water, electricity, health etc; constant flow of new arrivals; over 8 million a year move from rural to urban in China

Problems caused by rapid urbanisation in developing countries - economic problems - informal sector; social problems - growth of squatter developments; environmental problems - traffic congestion & water pollution

Informal sector - part of economy where jobs created by people trying to get an income - mending bikes etc; not recognised on official figures

Underlying cause of all social problems - lack of income; few jobs in formal sector; travelling is expensive, have more children in hope one will get a job

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Squatter Settlements

Squatter settlements - outskirts, use any material they can, high density

Social problems - housing, effects on health & family life for those in squatter settlements

Self Help - authorites support residents in slums to improve homes; coorporation between residents; clear rubbish; authorites offer grants & cheap loans; build health centres, schools etc; advantages - help themselves, stand pipes improve water & sanitation, offer grants/loans; disadvantages - have low GDPs so may not be able to afford it, maybe tension between residents & authorities

Site & Service - land identified for scheme - proper water supply, sanitation, electricity; advantages - water, sanitation & electricity provided, can build for themselves; disadvantages - no inital material provided, no definite help with money

Local Authority - large-scale improvements or new towns e.g. Cairo new towns like 10th of Karmadam City to reduce pressure in city, high rise flats, shops, schools, mosque, employment; advantages - big improvements; disadvantages - may not want to move, costs a lot

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Environmental Problems, Sustainable Cities & Stick

Environmental problems - industrialisation; disposal of waste; landfills; recycling; air pollution; transnational corporations (TNCs); water pollution

Characteristics of a sustainable city - environment not damaged; economic base is sound, resources allocated fairly, jobs secure; strong sense of community

Conversing historic environment - reflect long histories, maintenence expensive but support economic activities; old industrial cities may have old/derelict land; repair & renovating, valuable to preserve heritage; tourist attractions, good centres for commerce, industry, retail centres, upmarket residential area

Involving local people - more like to respong positively; cosulting people at planning stages, can survey opinions; asking what they want & giving it, happy; have meetings in local halls, feel included

Stick strategies - congestion charges; restricting access by car; increase fuel tax; increase road tax; impose speed limits; prevent new roads being built; increase car parking charges; car-free zones

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Carrot Strategies

  • safe cycle lanes
  • improve people's knowledge of public transport
  • workplace travel plans
  • walking to school bus system
  • share delivery lorries
  • upgrade current public transport
  • intergrated public transport systems
  • 'Park & Ride' systems
  • more frequent buses
  • flexible working hours
  • CCTV cameras on buses
  • extension of bus lanes
  • Oyster Cards etc
  • modern electrified tram systems
  • improved quality of buses
  • traffic lanes for 2+ people in a car
  • telework & teleconference - reduce journeys
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Rowlands Castle

Village in popular tourist country of Hampshire

Railway station, popular commuter settlement

Proposed development of 35 dwellings & 12 flats in Redhill Road in grounds of Oaklands House; will use 1.4 hectares of greenfield land

Using greenfield land - no road restrictions, land cheaper so buildings larger, no cost for clearing land, gardens, countryside setting, local shops & good travel

Some opposition from local residents - increased traffic, less surrounding countryside, more businesses, schools, doctors, shops etc

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Gunwharf Quays

West of Portsmouth, near CBD

Previously owned by Royal Navy - Naval Ordnance Department until 1919; Naval Torpedo School & named HMS Vernon - damaged by bombs, diving trials; Prince Charles commanded HMS Bronnington 1970s & HMS Vernon closed in 1986

1992 declared conservation area by Portsmouth City Council, declared for purchase 4th June 1991 - 1995 Berkely Group proposed development brief,1997 council approved it

Main features of scheme - incorporate old buildings into modern environment; Vulcan building mix of residential/commercial uses; Vernon building into traditional style pub; mix of retail, restraunants & leisure; mult-screen cinema

Example of redevelopment of brownfield site, used derelict land, roads already existed, easy to get planning permission, cut cost of commuting, already water & electricity

Brought tourism to Portsmouth, Spinnaker Tower UK landmark

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London Dockland Corporation (UDC)

Location - London Docklands

Dates - LDDC set up in 1981 -1988 regeneration, east end of London

What was done - 431ha of land sold for development; Docklands Light Railway; 2.3km2 of commerical/industrial floorspace built; 762ha of derelict land reclaimed; 2,700 businesses trading;

Who was involved - central government started it with a grant

Where funding came from - local government controlled by central government, £1.86bn; £7.7bn from private investment

24,046 homes built; 5 new health centres; redevelopment of 6 more; 11 primary school; 2 secondary schools; 3 colleges; 85,000 people working there

Advantages - 120,000 jobs; new image of docklands; middle class people to area, followed by shops, restraunants, bars; disadvantages - initially locals resisted, some tensions; new jobs for well qualified; little attention to poorer communities

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Hulmes, Manchester (City Challenge)

Dates - crescents built in 1960s, 1992 redevelopment set up, crescents demolished in 1990s

What was done - 3,000 new homes, shopping areas, roads & community facilities, more traditional street pattern, streets, squares, 2-story houses, low rise flats, private & council homes

Who was involved - Guinness Trust, Bellway Homes, Manchester City Council, company responsible for Manchester City Airport

Funding - £375mn spent by organisations involved

Homes designed to conserve water, energy efficient, local schools & park built, crime greatly reduced, social mix of people, change to area's reputation, views of locals taken into consideration

Advantages - more appeal to live there, better quality housing, more pleasant environment, reduced crime; disadvantages - waste of resources - 1960s was redeveloped, temporarily rehouse residents

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New Islington Millenium Village, Manchester (Susta

Dates - first redeveloped in 1970s, funding for area began in 2002

What was done - 66 new houses, 700 new apartments, 3,000m of canal side, 12 bridges, 10 new shops, 2 pubs, 2 restraunants, cafes & bars, 300 new trees, 2 garden islands, orchard & beach, primary school, 2 workshops, sustainable agenda

Who was involved - Urban Splash forefront, Manchester City Council & many other groups

Funding - all groups involved

100s new homes, environmentally friendly, 100s of trees, health centre, recycling collections, recycle 50% of waste

Advantages - more environmentally friendly housing, crime levels dropped, opportunities for employment, health care & education, more open space

Disadvantages - temporarily rehouse residents, loss of community spirit, waste of rescources, cost a lot of money

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Portsmouth Park & Ride

Starts at - 1000 Lakeside North Harbour

Stops at - Edinburgh Road, The Hard

Costs including bus fare - £2.50/car

Days - every Saturday, bank holidays, special events

Times - 9am - 6pm

Run by Portsmouth City Council

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London - Congestion Charge & Oyster Card

Congestion charge - central London 2003, west London 2007, £8 Mon-Fri 7am - 6pm

Advantages - 30% less congestion, 16% less vehicles, 14% less journey time,  20% less road accidents, more bikes, car sharing, more business for public transport, bus & taxi services better, lowered pollution levels

Disadvantages - less people shopping/entertainment, loss of commercial revenue, traffic displacement - more elsewhere, hit less well off people who are car dependent

Oyster Card - launched July 2003, London over & underground, London Buses etc

Electronic ticketing - central London, Docklands Light Railway, more than 80% of all journeys use Oyster Card

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Portsmouth's CBD

Commercial Road

1972 - Pedestrianisation of CBD & Guildhall Square; 1976 - civics offices & central library built; 1989 - Cascades shopping centre built; 1999 - CCTV installed; 2001 new shopping areas, Gunwharf Quays, Spinnaker Tower

Since 2002 - smartened up Arundal Street, street furniture in Guildhall Square, current developments aimed at smartening up precinct area, new paving, new seating etc

The Tricorn Centre - was shopping, apartments, nightclub, car park in 1960s

1980s voted 3rd ugliest building in UK, demolishment began 24th March 2004, 9 months

Valuable land on CBD - new John Lewis, 200 homes, multi-story car park, scaled back due to recession, currently a car park

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Dharavi, India

In Mumbai, India - Asia's largest slum, 600,000 people there

100s share a common toilet & water supples, open drains with human waste, diarrhoea, typhoid, cholera

Rooms less than 10cm2, can house a dozen people

shacks built from anything on illegal land, sometimes on water/slopes

poor quality of life, unhygienic, high pop. density

stress - frequent marriage break ups, crime & theft, no health care

lack of schools, fire hazardous, many homeless children, high infant mortality

in desperation people scavenge rubbish tips, lack of work/unreliable work

Plans - rehouse some into flats, rest of site for commercial development, some residents want to stay, think they are making money from them

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Kibera, Nairobi in Kenya

Largest slum in Africa, 1mn per 1 square mile

Piles of rubbish, open sewers, most live below $1 a day, many homeless children, airbourne disease

Authorites building flats with sanitation, toilets & water supplies, residents completely rehabited

Benefits - higher quality conditions, water born diseases reduced, better quality of life

Social benefits - proper water supply, standard of living improved, no problem of open sewer

Economic benefits - more job opportunities, new shops & industries

Environmental benefits - water supply cleared up, reduced water pollution, rubbish problem not as bad in flats, less air pollution & spread of disease

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Getting Rid Of Waste

Sao Paulo, Brazil - 2 huge incinerators burn 7,500 tonnes; making use of houseland waste - car tyres to sandals, food waste to fertilisers

Shanghai, China - installing solid wasre disposal unit that households can use as fertilisers

Bhopal, India - safe disposal of toxic waste is key issue in industrialisation; site covered in toxic waste, had to be shipped to USA to be disposed of; cities in poor countries can't be seen as places to easily get rid of it; large companies need to take more responsibility

Bangalore, India - e-waste covered by one enforcement order - inadequate; Greenpeace believe high-tech companies should take responsibility for waste disposal; extract dangerous chemicals from equipment at end of its life, recycling plants

China - cleaner renewable sources of energy, unpopular - could lead to introduction of carbon tax - taxed for producing more toxic emissions, ue low sulfure coal

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Reducing Pollution

Mexico City - odd numbered cars only on one day, even numbered cards on the next

congestion charges put people off

improving public transport - more people use buses, trains, less congestion & pollution

Plan Verde - every Sunday transport closed, only cyclists; bike rental system - £18 for 3,000 uses; metrobuses; subways

Ganga Action Plan, India - 1986 introduced water treatment works on River Ganges - successful; however population growth not taken into account - water quality since deteriorated

Shanghai, China - Huangiou & Suzhou rivers improved water quality; world bank loan of $200mn for this in 2002

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Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City

World Heritage Site in 2004 - British Empire 18th & 19th C

Pier Head - Liver Building, Port of Liverpool Building, Cunard Building

The Albert Dock - dock buildings & warehouses, opened 1846, WW2 suffered bomb damage, fell into disrepair, 1980s massive regeneration - opened to public 1984, Tate Liverpool, Merseyside Maritime Museum, The Beatles Story

Stanley Dock Conservation Area - old warehouses in 19th C, by Leeds & Liverpool Canal, conserved, commercial/residential apartments, plans to redevelop into 100s of apartments

Sustainable because - used unused land, brought tourism - jobs, improved local economy; didn't need to be rebuilt, less pollution in central Liverpool, less need to build on greenfield land

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Greenhouse, Leeds

Transformed 1930s brick building into sustainable carbon neutral development, known as 'Greenhouse'

South Leeds Regeneration Plan - construction work began 2007, residential & office use, example of brownfield site

How it reduced carbon emissions - solar panels, super insulation, sustainable building materials, fuel & water efficient, wind turbines

Citu & Leeds City Council & local community groups, £250,000 spent on landscape improvements, free on-site gym, on-site deli/cafe using local produce, shared courtyard

Sustainable transport - encourages car sharing, free bike club, secure bike storage, electric car club, electric car charging points, share taxis

Waste management - 85% waste recycled during building, intergrated bins, waste measured weekly

Land planning - more homes & employment together - less commuting

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OMG guys be warned these are just PROMPTS not NOTES! 


oh hi mia thankyou for warning me ;)


hahah thought it was needed cause some people can't read the writing at the top obviously ;)

Jenny Hoper

guys ;)

Mr A Gibson

If you are studying this topic then these will serve as really good prompts to help you remember the main points that you can use as uniquely linked to a case study in an answer. I recommend these on your mobile device to flick through if you prefer that to printing them out... but either is good.

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