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CHANGING URBAN ENVIRONMENTS
In 2008, for the first time ever, over half the world's population lived in
towns and cities. Urbanisation- where there are an increasing
proportion of city dwellers in contrast to those in the countryside- is a
worldwide process. It began at different times in different parts of the
world and occurred at contrasting paces, as it continues to do so today.
The contrasting proportions of people living in cities and towns and
cities can be shown through the map below.…read more

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The people that migrate
into the towns are generally young and this results in relatively high
levels of natural increase. The high proportion of young adults results
in high levels of birth. Falling death rates due to improved medical care
mean more babies are born than people dying, which fuels the increase
in the urban population.
HOW DOES LAND USE VARY IN AN URBAN AREA?
In all towns and cities the land use varies.…read more

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WHAT ARE THE ISSUES FOR PEOPLE LIVING IN URBAN AREA IN RICHER
PARTS OF THE WORLD?
ISSUE ONE: HOUSING
Population in the UK has increased by 7% since 1971 and the rate of
growth is predicted to continue, giving a population of 52.5 million by
2021. The number of households has risen by 30% since 1971. Most of
this increase is because more people live alone ­ some 7 million of the
UK's population.…read more

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Roads already exist Some shops and business parks on
outskirts provide local facilities
Near to facilities in town centres, e.g. Land cheaper on outskirts so plots can
shops, entertainment and places of be larger
work
Cuts commuting More space for gardens
ISSUE TWO: THE INNER CITY
Part of the demand for housing will be satisfied in inner-city areas.…read more

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Although the LDDC ceased to exist
after 1998, the area has continued to develop and change. During its
lifetime, £1.86 billion of public money was invested along with £7.7
billion from the private sector. Changes are continuing today, with
further improvements in the transport system (such as the eastward
extension of the Jubilee Line), and building of further skyscrapers at
Canary Wharf and other locations.
City Challenge was a big initiative of the 1990s.…read more

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Integral to this was an
attempt to enhance the environment, community facilities and
shopping provision.
Sustainable communities allow people to live in an area where there is
housing of an appropriate standard to offer a reasonable quality of life,
with access to a job, education and health care. This initiative began in
2003 and one area affected by it is an area of east Manchester, formerly
known as Cardroom and now renamed New Islington Millennium
Village.…read more

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Issue Three: Traffic
As we demand greater mobility and accessibility with flexibility, the
number of cars has increased, as has the problem of traffic congestion.
More people have more money and welcome the door-to-door service
that comes with having a car. Many households (27% in 2002) have
more than one car. There are many problems with traffic: Air pollution
from vehicles, Noise from heavy vehicles, Buildings discoloured, Impact
on health- respiratory conditions, asthma and unsightly.…read more

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ISSUE FOUR: MULTICULTURAL MIX
Despite the apparent racial mix in many cities, a number of immigrants
choose to live with people from similar areas and away from others
with a different ethnicity and culture. This represents segregation.
Here are some reasons why people choose to cluster in the same area
as their fellow immigrants:
o Support from others- People feel safe and secure when they can
associate with other people from the same background. There is a
sense of belonging and protection from racial abuse.…read more

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ISSUE FIVE: THE CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT
During 1960s until early 1980s, the CBD struggled to attract
businesses. Out-of-town shopping areas and regional shopping centres
became more favourable as they offered pleasant shopping
opportunities with good parking. Cities seemed busy and crowded. The
air quality was poor with a smell of diesel and lead concentrations
were dangerous in some areas.
But there have been some improvements in CBDs and their image is
now positive. They have become vibrant and pleasant due to a number
of initiatives.…read more

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