Health components of physical fitness

  • Created by: Emily
  • Created on: 22-05-11 16:38

What is Flexibility?

Range of motion around a joint or a series of joints

  • Flexibility is joint specific (may not be flexible in each area)
  • Sport specific (gymnast requires more then rugby players)
  • Two components .......
  • Static Flexibility - The range of motion around a joint without accounting for speed (Dance and gymnastics during floor routines)
  • Dynamic Flexibility - The range of movement around a joint which occurs ar a normal or rapid speed (sprinting throwing -require good hip flexion and abduction
  • Stretching is used to increase flexibility
  • Importance of Flexibility: flexibility is critical as you need to stretch to ensure body tissue doesnt break down which will lead to injury
  • Benefits of Flexibility.........
  • 1) Reduces risk of injury
  • 2) Improved posture
  • 3)Flexible muscles perform better than tight muscles
  • 4) Improved range of motion
  • 5)Improved performance
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Factors Affecting Flexibility

  • Type of Joint - Ball and socket has a full range of movement
  • Joint Shape - Shoulder has shallow cavity so greater RoM compared to hips deeper cavity
  • Elasticity of tissue - Tendon ligaments, joint capsule affect RoM
  • Gender - Females more flexible then males
  • Age - Greater in children decreases in age due to loss of elasticity of muscle
  • Elasticity - Suppleness of skin
  • Temperature - Increased in temp increases elasticity of muscles
  • Muscle mass - Excess muscle mass restricts RoM
  • Nerves - Trigger a stretch reflex within muscles increasing their resistance to stretch
  • Hypermobility - inherited or trained factors increase RoM
  • Flexibility training - Stretching may maintain increase RoM
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Measuring Flexibility

  • Specific tests for specific joints are used
  • Sit and reach - hip and lower back
  • Geniometry - measures the degrees from starting position to position at end to see the RoM

The benefits of a warm up

  • increases core temp - increasing RoM reducing risk of injury
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Flexibility Training

Stretching- Maintains and improves flexibility.. Two types

  • Maintenance stretching - part of warm up cool down (maintain RoM)
  • Developmental Stretching - Training session (develop RoM)

Types of Flexibility Training

  • Static: Either Active (voluntary static contraction) or Passive (voluntary help)
  • (+) Most effective and safest 
  • (-) Does not prepare joints for dynamic flexibility
  • (+) More appropriate were low RoM
  • Ballistic:Uses momentum (forcibly) -fast swinging movements
  • (-) least effective doesn't allow tissues to adapt (injury)
  • (+) More appropriate were high RoM
  • Dynamic: taking muscle through full range of RoM under control so not an extreme point of resistance 
  • (+)only performed if have a good range of flexibility 
  • (+) Increases speed power, dynamic flexibility 
  • PNF: static, contract, relax
  • (+) effective were poor RoM
  • (+)quicker flexibility gains
  • (-) requires more time
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Flexibility training adaptations and benefits

  • Increased elasticity 
  • Increased resting length of muscles
  • Increased RoM 
  • Increased potential for static and dynamic flexibility
  • Prevents injury
  • Muscle spindle adapt to increased length
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Flexibility in relation to Health

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