Types, tests

What is the definition of static flexibility?
The maximum range of movement around a joint, not taking into account speed
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What is the definition of dynamic flexibility?
The maximum range of movement around a joint taking speed of movement into account
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Give an example for dynamic flexibility
A straddle jump
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Give an example of static flexibility
Contraction of the hamstring through the lunging movement
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To whom is static flexibility important to?
People needing to hold static balance e.g dancers and gymnasts
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To whom is dynamic flexibility important to?
People using throwing techniques
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What are the benefits of flexibility training?
Reduced DOMS, reduced risk of injury, improved posture, increased range of movement which also allows for increased power, flexible muscles perform better than tight ones, improved economy of movement (AC, Strength endurance)
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What are muscle spindles
Proprio recpetors in the muscle
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What type of joint allows for most flexibility?
Ball and Socket
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Give an example of how joint shape affects flexibility
Hip is less flexible than shoulder as it has a deeper cavity
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What elements of joints affect flexibility?
Ligaments, Tendons, fascia, joint capsule
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How do muscle spindles affect flexibility?
At the maximum ROM they send an impulse to the brain initiating the stretch reflex preventing further stretching
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Are males or females generally more flexible?
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At what age is flexibility at its greatest and why does it decrease?
Children, due to decrease in elasticity of connective tissues and muscle
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What factors affect elasticity?
Skin and adipose tissue
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How does muscle mass affect flexibility?
Excess muscle mass reduces muscle flexibility
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How does inheritance affect flexibility?
People can inherit hypermobility, but this can reduce joint stability, increasing risk of injury
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How are nerves affected by stretching?
They stretch with the stretching of the muscle, increasing their resistance to stretching
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What other factor affects flexibility?
Flexibility training
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What are the dimensions of a sit and reach test box?
32cm high, 42cm wide, 75cm long with the first 25cm overhanging the box over the performers legs
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How is the sit and reach test done?
The participant sits down with his feet against the block, knees locked. They then reach out in front of them and push a ruler along the box along a scale and hold it at their maximum distance for 2-3 seconds.
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What specific piece of equipment is used to test flexibility?
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How is a goniometer used to measure hip flexion?
The centre of the meter is placed over the hip. The performer lays flat on their back, with one leg flat on the floor. The other leg is then raised, flexed at the knee and the performer then tries to pull their knee as close to their chest as possible
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Do you lay on your front or back for a shoulder extension test?
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How is hip abduction measured?
Lay flat on your back, keeping the left leg straight, then move the right leg to the right as far as possible
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What is Maintenance stretching?
Stretching in a warm up to maintain RoM, does not improve it
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What is developmental stretching?
A training session aimed at improving RoM
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How is flexibility training overloaded with frequency?
Flexibility training should take place 2 to 4 times a week
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Does there need to be a high intensity for improving flexibility
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How can time be used to overload in flexibility training?
Each stretch should be held for a minimum of 10 seconds
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How can specificity be applied to fleixibility training?
Joint, speed of stretch, type of stretching
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What are the two types of static stretching?
Passive- aided externally, Active- Contracting agonist to stretch antagonist as much as possible
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What is the benefit of static stretching?
It carries the least risk of injury
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What is the disadvantage of static stretching?
It does not replicate the speed or power used in actual movement
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What is Ballistic stretching?
Using momentum to push the joint to its full range of movement. Involves moving at speed.
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Give an example of Ballisitic stretching
Leg Kick
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What are the disadvantages of Ballistic stretching?
The muscle does not have time to stretch and create muscle tension which means connective tissues are not stretched, carries largest risk of injury, can done by people with large range of movement already
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What is Dynamic stretching?
Taking the joint through its full RoM with a controlled exit and entry. It is also held in order to provide muscle tension in order to help stretch connective tissues
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What are its advantages over Ballistic stretching?
It is not as extreme and therefore there is less risk of injury, and it allows for joint tension
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What is the advantage of dynamic stretching over static stretching?
It replicates the speed and power of the stretch during activity
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What is the main objective of Propriorecpetive Neuromuscular Facilitation
To inhibit the stretch reflex in order to improve flexibility
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How does Proprioreceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation work?
Static stretch held just past resistance point, Isometric contraction against partner for 10 seconds, then relax and repeat sequence
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When is Dynamic stretching best for and why?
A warm up, because it readies the body for stretching at speed
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When is static stretching/PNF best for?
A cool down, returns muscles to original length and
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What are the adaptations after flexibility training?
Increased elasticity and resting length of connective tissues and muscles, increased RoM due to muscle spindles reducing stretch reflex, increased length for muscles to create force, decreased risk of injury
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is the definition of dynamic flexibility?


The maximum range of movement around a joint taking speed of movement into account

Card 3


Give an example for dynamic flexibility


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Give an example of static flexibility


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


To whom is static flexibility important to?


Preview of the front of card 5
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