Morality is a system of ethics about what is right or wrong.
Ethics is the theory relating to morality.
Absolute morality is what is right and wrong all the time.
Relative morality- depends on the situation.
Why is life special?
The sanctity of life is the idea that life is sacred because it's God given.
The value of life is the value of a person over and above physical value.
The quality of life is the measure of fulfillment.
'So god created man in His own image'
Nobody really knows when life begins, Roman Catholics believe it starts at conception, Muslims believe the baby gains a soul after 19 weeks (ensoulment), Jews believe life starts at birth.
Christians believe that man was made first, and Roman Catholics believe all leaders should be mean. However the Golden rule states you should treat others how you want to be treated.
IVF is a method of making a woman pregnant that does not involve sex, conception occurs in a test tube. Babies created this way are called test tube babies.
'Hannah had none and the lord had closed her womb'
'Be fruitful and multiply'
'Thou shall not kill'
Arguments for: Creating new life can be a very good thing
'be fruitful and multiply'
Life is a gift from God and it is good.
Arguments against: Unnatural
God's role to choose who has children.
AI and Surrogacy
AIH and AID and methods of impregnating a woman, out of the body.
The sperm is medically inserted into the womb.
Religious beliefs for AI:
- 'love thy neighbour'
- God has given is the intelligence and tech.
Religious beliefs against:
- Roman Catholics see masturbation as sowing the seed and wasting life.
-Seen as going against God.
Surrogates carry babies for couples who cannot have children. Gestational surrogacy is when the mother's egg and father's sperm is put into another woman's womb.Surrogates lose their rights over the child if the parents apply. They cannot be paid fees but can be paid expenses.
Transplant surgery and blood transfusion
Most Christians see organ donation as a good thing as you are helping someone, links to 'love thy neighbour' and it is seen as an act of charity from Roman Catholics.
Some Muslims feel they need to be complete when they meet Allah so would don't agree with it.
Blood transfusions are acceptable to Christians as it is seen as an act of kindness and charity.
Jehovah's Witnesses do not support the idea as they believe a person's soul and personality run through the blood.
'The life of everything is in the blood'
Human genetic engineering is the modification of gene make-up to change the features of a person.
Embryology is the study of embryos (fertilised ovum)
Designer babies are babies with their character chosen by parents.
Human Fertilisation and Embryology act 2008
- Better quality of life.
- God given intelligence.
- Hindus allow it if it helps.
- Science is taking over the role of creator.
- 'shall not murder'
- Ashima- Hindus, bad karma.
Stem cells from a new baby is taken and transplanted into the sick child, it is legal but they cannot be used for organs, cells or tissues.
It can help people, but it is possible that the child may feel unwanted.
Clones and Hybrids
Clones can save lives, provide children's for couples, and animals could be cloned for food. However you would no longer be unique and scientists would be taking over the role of god. Clones may also feel like a product.
For- helps people, improves quality of life, free will and technology given by god
Against-against nature and God, leftover embryos, may not have a soul.
Reproductive cloning involves making an exact copy of an organism, this is illegal. Therapetic cloning is copying material for stem cells to find treatments.
Human-animal embryo hybrids have human DNAand animal eggs, these are used for experiments and are legal however they can't be implanted.