Defense of Outremer

  • Created by: mrevv
  • Created on: 24-12-19 10:43

Baldwin I

  • He had to fight Duqaq of Damascus on the way to his coronation. 
  • On the coast, only Jaffa and Haifa recognised Jerusalem and neither had a harbour. 
  • He installed a new County of Edessa and centralised territory, keeping the royal demense.
  • He fought the Turks at Galilee in 1113, Egyptions at the 3 battles of Ramla, and built castles.
  • Egypt invaded 10 times, and the last battle of Ramla was a Frank-massacre. 
  • Seaports such as Arsulf, Caesurea, Acre, Biereut and Sidon were taken.
  • Tancred captured Latakia and campaigned constnatly in Northern/Eastern Syria. 
  • B1 protected the northern states in 1115 against Mosul, Aleppo and Damascus.
  • He also had to protect pilgrims. Tyre and Ascalon did not fall until B1's death.
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  • Castles defended ports (Latakia in Antioch) and Jerusalem (stop Egpyt).
  • They were used for consolidation and submission initially from 1100-1115.
  • After, they were used for administration once Outremer was secure.
  • Finally they were used to protect from NAD and Saladin in the 1160s.
  • They could not stop an enemy, though, and they required an army. 
  • Without natural borders, castles were important. 
  • Castles in Tripoli were used for aquisition of new territory.
  • Fortified towers, enclosed castles, enclosed castles with keeps, concretic castles spur castles and fortified towns were used. 
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Military orders overview

  • Greater Muslim threat and more donations received
  • Established initially to protect pilgrims but they developed a military role.
  • 1172, Henry II of England paid for 200 knights to spend a year in Jerusalem
  • Order knights were seen as soldiers more than pilgrim escorts and they fought more often.
  • Previously they had worked in hospital and temple foundations peacefully. 
  • 1127, Hugh of Payns gained papal endorsement for the Templars. 
  • This gave it publicity and created donations.
  • They used volunteers such s Fulk of Anjou then created the first permanent army. 
  • Clairvaux praised the Templars in his book ‘in praise of the knighthood’ - they were endowed by the church and theologically accepted.
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Orders protecting Outremer

  • Stationed at castles such as Bethgibelin to garrison, 25 for Hospitallers and 17 for Templars. At Antioch, 200 were sent to stop Nur Al-Din in 1149.
  • Baldwin II gave the Templars his palace at Jerusalem on the temple of Solomon. 
  • The Hospital of St John and the Order of St Lazarus also developed.
  • While they started with humble origins, they became more military based and fought more often. The Hospitallers took part in King Amalric’s raids in Egypt.
  • A letter from the seneschal of the temple suggest there were 120 knights and 1000 soldiers. Battle of Hatin, 230 Hospitallers lost.
  • Hospitallers became in debt from fighting Egypt with 500 knights and 500 turcopoles. 
  • Raymond of Tripoli trusted them to garrison his castles when he was a regent.
  • Jacob’s ford castle was given on the condition that it would be garrisoned.
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Western aid for the orders

  • Donations from the west received from Eleanor of Aquitaine’s port of La Rochelle as a base in 1139 and a base from the Duke of Brittany in 1141 in Nantes.
  • Kings used taxes to raise money for the orders and sent soldiers.
  • 1184, Henry II and Philip II of France created a tithe
  • Pope Celestine II published an 1144 bull granting a 1/7 indulgence to donators to the Templars.
  • Not at their height until the 13th century, their early impact was negligible.
  • Sponsors were given spiritual rewards and prayed for by the order.
  • Orders owned property in Western Europe, with gave 1/3 of its funds to the orders.
  • Hugh of Payns, who led the templars, brought financial aid from the West and raised the Templar profile.
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  • Alexius requested Western aid- Constantinople was seen as a base.
  • They fought together against the Turks in 1138 and Egypt in 1177.
  • Antioch was claimed by Alexius and John Commnenus.
  • 1137, there was an attack on Antioch over Princess Constance's husband.
  • They intermarried to avoid a Turkish invasion- B3 married Theodora, Manuel married Maria of Antioch, Amalric married Maria. (Maria and Theodora were realted to Manuel)
  • When Manuel died, his sucessor Andronicus allied with Saladin.
  • 1110, Antioch was invaded 6 times by Byzantium. 
  • They sold land so they must have co-operated. 
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Military aid

  • This was critical in establishing the crusader states, since they provided settlers in crusades.
  • 1122-24, Pope Calixtus authorised a crusade to help Baldwin II consolidate Tyre (captured 1124.); BIII offered pilgrims money to attack Ascalon in 1153, captured; 1157-8 Count Thierry of Flanders took knights to the holy land, removing the blockade at Krak des chevaliers and fighting the Damascenes and taking Harenc. 
  • Only 700 knights in Jerusalem, showing chronic lack of manpower.
  • The aid diminished and key crusader strongholds were taken.
  • Help requests were often ignored- Reynald of Chatillon appealed to Louis VII for help. 
  • None was sent and Raymond of Antioch died.
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Lack of Western support

  • The west was also preoccupied with Becket’s murder and Henry’s family rebelling.
  • Patriarch Heraclitus of Jerusalem went to Europe in 1184, meeting with General Frederick Barbarossa of Germany and Phillip II of France and Henry II of England to ask for a crusade.
  • He was ridiculed, ignored and only received a handful of recruits. 
  • The eastern Latins gained a poor reputation for being duplicitous. 
  • Only had 2000 knights compared to 6000 who set off.
  • 1174, Nur al-din took Banyas: 1179, armies were defeated at Banyas forest and Marj Ayun and Saladin took the castle at Jacob’s ford.  
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