• Created by: Hbrandxx
  • Created on: 04-04-18 08:11

Religious motivations for going on crusade

1. Theory of a 'Just War'

  • Pope Urban II asked them to kill Muslims to recapture Jerusalem- break commandment.
  • Mathilda of Tuscany helped to develop idea of 'penintential warfare'- war fought as penance to make up for sins.
  • Religious excuse for war- good reason, good intentions and official leader.

2. Impact of Papal Reform Movement 

  • Urban II offered version 1 of indulgence (remissio peccatorum)- like an extreme pilgrimage.
  • Gregorian Reform Movement popularised idea of copying life of Christ- get to heaven.
  • Crusade offered best change to copy life of Christ- reduced to a simple lifestyle.

3. Plenary Indulgence

  • Those unconvinced by remissio peccatorum offered plenary indulgence in 12th century- let of all penalties for sins.
  • Version 2 was better: was a gift and Catholic Church used 'Treasury of the Church' to legitimise it.
  • First used in 1145 by Pope Eugenius II in 2nd crusade.
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2. Religious motivations for going on crusade

4. Aim of freeing Jerusalem

  • Holy sites- cavalry and Holy Sepulchre, thus, popular pilgrim destination.
  • Rise of Seljuk Turks 1090s made route less safe/tolls for pilgrims.
  • Chronicle accounts of Urban's sermon at Council of Clermont 1095 claim he mentioned 'polluting' influence of Islam.
  • Crusade launched w/religious goal of restoring it is as pilgrimage destination.

5. Papal support for crusades

  • Pope Urban II created theory behind going on crusade- rewards, launched in 1095 and began preaching tour.
  • Pope's could issue threats- excommunication to those who abandoned/didn't join.
  • Wrote crusade bulls- Eugenius in 2nd crusade used 'Quantum praedecessores' to recruit.
  • Used propaganda: Urban had idea of the ceremony of granting the cross (visual symbol).
  • Financial support- borrowed money to crusade e.g. Pope Clement 1188 asked clergy for help.
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3. Religious motivations for going on crusade

6. The influence of preachers

  • Preachers developed techniques to maximise recruits.
  • Chose right day (arrive at a holy time), gathering outdoors for max space.
  • Maximise the quality of the audience- ideal was wealthy knights/noblemen.
  • Create a pious mood- Urban ordained a feast and participants earned indulgence.
  • Encourage participation- used miracles to make them want to take crusade vow.
  • Urban had little control over preachers- Peter the Hermit recruited wrong people.
  • 1146- Pope Eugenius ordered preachers at Council of Reims= more control.
  • Key preacher: Bernard of Clairvaux- helped 2nd crusade and did preaching tour of Flanders and Germany.
  • Most notable recruits by Bernard were Louis VII King of France and King of Germany Conrad III.
  • He turned a religiously motivated appeal into an army of knights, led by powerful secular leaders.
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1. How did the changing political situation lead t

1. Threats to Byzantine Empire

  • BE needed help after surviving collapse of Roman Empire (they were the Eastern half).
  • Was centre of Greek Orthodox Church; split from Latin Church 1054.
  • Seljuk Turks gradually took control over Asia Minor: 1078 Nicea, 1084 Antioch.
  • Alexius' attempts at negotiation in 1090s failed.
  • Increased seaborne threat from Muslim pirate attacks worsened affairs= Alexius appeals to Urban for help as he wanted to create a buffer between BE and Turks.
  • Urban claimed crusade was a political need (threat to eastern ally) so called crusade.

2. Urbans political problems and ambitions for the Papacy

  • Alexius' appeal gave Urban chance to expand his control over western Christendom.
  • German threat: in a weak position in 1088 due to threat form Henry IV of Germany due to Investiture Controversy which made him fight to regain control of papal territories.
  • French threat: King Phillip's adultery against Church law made Urban excommunicate him at Clermont in 1095 so created another powerful rival.
  • Crusade gave him the means to consolidate power- saw himself as a monarch.
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2. How did changing political situations lead to c

2. Urban's polititcal problems and ambitions for the papacy (cont.)

  • Crusade was also a chance to restore relations with Alexius and discuss unification as he wanted to unify Greek/Latin Church under his control.

3. Violence and growing disorder in Europe

  •  Internal conflicts in France due to fragmentation of society/weakness of King= castellans were violent towards public to assert authority.
  • Their actions clashed with growing confidence of Church; cluniac reformers promoted idea that violence (esp towards churchmen) was unacceptable.
  • Church implemented 2 measures for the Peace Movement: Peace of God (orders for ecclesiastical protection) and Truce of God (order to stop violence on certain days).
  • Crusade gave warriors a holy purpose for violence and Urban hoped the Peace movement would help them direct their violence outside western EU.
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3. How did changing political situations lead to c

4. Defence of the crusader states

  • Crusades of 12th century mainly called to regain/protect Latin states of Outremer.
  • 2nd crusade called 1145- Zengi caused fall of Edessa 1144 and killed 15,000.
  • Pope Eugenius II proclaimed 2nd crusade in Quantum Praedecessores in response.
  • 1180s- new threat in Latin East from Saladin (began invasion attempts 1170s).
  • 1187 Campaign: relic of true cross taken, Jerusalem fell to Saladin and Franks forced to leave after payment of 30,000 bezants.
  • Losses led Pope Gregory VIII to call for defence of Outremer settlements in Audita tremendi and reissued by Pope Celestine III 3 months later after loss of Jerusalem was confirmed.
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1. What inspired knights to go on crusade?

1. Motivations for a 11th century knight

  • Knights had great military strength- experienced in warfare/heavily armoured and good tactics.
  • Knights armour protected them against mobile Turks who used bow and arrow (weren't good at hand-to-hand combat like knights).
  • Knights weaknesses: slower than Turks, few in number, limited in siege warfare.
  • Urban promoted crusade as a pilgrimage experience and used core message of fighting barbarians in Holy Land rather than brothers at home.
  • Lordship ties- Lord can inspire their nobility to join them on crusade.
  • Family connections- Bohemond of Taranto had 8 close relatives with him.
  • Links to Cluny- at heart of papal reform movement, helped them appreciate religious reason.

2. Development of chivalric values 

  • 12th century- concept of chivarly changed, new values turned crusading into a duty.
  • Old values focused on winning, courageous, develop strength whereas new values made knights more of a artistocratic position.
  • 3rd crusade- Richard I went East w/English knights; crusading + chivlary hand in hand.
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2. What inspired knights to go on crusade?

3. Protecting Christianity and Pilgrims 

  • Knights needed in Outremer to protect pilgrims due to dangers (1120- Muslim raids from Tyre/Ascalon killed 300 and captured pilgrims).
  • Muslim threat inspired some knights to provide an escort for pilgrims.
  • Templar movement 1120- formal approval in 1129 at Council of Tyres (only had 500 as they had to take monastic vows).
  • Hospitaller's- main duty to run St John Hospital in Jerusalem.
  • Hospitaller's militarised 1130s- helped some knights turn crusading into a permanent location.

4. Settlement in the crusader states and acquisition of wealth

  • Opportunity for land/wealth used by Urban- sermon: East is a rich/fertile land.
  • Crusaders looted in 1st crusade- went alongside their religious motives.
  • Some knights saw crusades as a way to escape their mouvances.
  • Bohemond of Taranto went on 1st crusade as he wanted to be a prince= declared himself Prince of Antioch (breaking promise to Alexius).
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3. What inspired knights to go on crusade?

4. Settlement in the crusader states and acquisition of wealth (cont.)

  • Little evidence that knights were motivated by settlement in Holy Land- during final siege, only 200 settled out of 1,200 knights.
  • Limited evidence of greed as a motivation as it cost alot- many returning from Outremer 1099 were in poverty (booty used to fund journey back).
  • Knights who planned to go on a crusade had to gather 5-6x their annual income to fund it.
  • 12th century: popes/Kings more funded, rather than wealth being a motivator it was a barrier to potential crusader knights.
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1. Leadership of 1st crusade 1095-1192

The 8 Princes and their changing priorities

Who were the leaders?

  • Main contingents were: German/Lotharingians, Northern French, Italian Normans, Southern French and Provencals. 
  • No single commander-in-chief to lead campaign with a sense of common purpose.

Main priorities

  • Each prince had the same stated aim= capture Jerusalem from Muslims.
  • German: Godfrey of Bouillon became ruler of Jerusalem and Baldwin conquered Edessa but then established himself in northern Syria as Count of Edessa.
  • Northern French: Hugh helped secure possession of Antioch but then abandoned crusade and Robert of Normandy and Robert of Flanders fought to end at Battle of Ascalon, Stephen deserted it soon after siege of Antioch.
  • Italian Normans: helped capture/secure Antioch but then est. himself as Prince of Antioch and left crusade.
  • Souterh French: Raymond fought to the end although becoming Coint of Tripoli slowed down crusade.
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2. Leadership of 1st crusade 1095-1192

Divisions: political background of the princes

  • Different relationships with papacy- Raymond led contingent w/Pope's representative Adhemar Le Puy whereas Godfrey had supported Pope's rival Henry IV.
  • Diverse relations w/Alexius I: Italian Normans had led campaigns against him 1080s.
  • Alexius asked them for oath of vassalge to him- caused delay and disuinty.
  • Some wanted to establish own priorities rather than campaign all the way to Jerusalem (e.g. Bohemond of Taranto, Prince of Antioch).

The First priority: getting to the Byzantine Emperor 

  • 4 contingents took different routes: staggered arrival delayed begining of crusade however it prevented any single place in EU having to provision entire crusading army.
  • French left via port of Italy 1096- shipwrecked but rescued by BE.
  • Germans crossed Hungary and Godfrey surrendered Baldwin to avoid violence.
  • Italian Normans crossed adriatic and Southern French left last- Nov 1096.
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3. Leadership of 1st crusade 1095-1192

Early divisions: getting through the Byzantine Empire

  • Alexius forced them to take oath of vassalage in return for help/suplies.
  • Germans: Godfrey only took oath after Alexius temporarily cut off his supplies and Baldwin avoided oath and was first to abandon crusade.
  • Northern French: Hugh, Robert, Count Robert and Stephen took oath w/o objection.
  • Italian Normans: Bohemond took oath with no intentions of keeping it, Tancred avoided it.
  • Southern French: refused oath but took oath to maintain emperor's life and honour.
  • If Killij Arslan hadn't been pre-occupied he could've defeated each contingent in turn.

Turning point: Siege of Nicea 

  • Began to arrive in Nicea 1097: blockaded Askanian Lake (main supply route cut off).
  • System of Council of Princes- provided forum for joint decisions (decided on blockade).
  • Learned from Nicea delays that they had two split into 2 waves; under Bohemond and under Raymond to keep frequent and close communications.
  • e.g. at Dorylaeum, Bohemond and Robert of Normandy were attacked by Turks so took defensive position and asked 2nd wave to join- Turks retreated.
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4. Leadership of the 1st crusade 1095-1192

Baldwin's Conquest of Edessa 1097

Why was he tempted east to Edessa?

  • Sept 1097- Tancred and Baldwin abandoned crusade to go to Antioch through Cilicia.
  • Conflict- Tarsus taken by Tancred, Baldwin outnumbered him so replaced T's banner with his own= first sign of crusader in-fighting.
  • Baldwin allowed Tancred's occupation of Cilician towns and looked for territory in Edessa.
  • Baldwin captured Ravanda + Tilbesar= invited by ruler of Edessa to be his son/heir.

Effects of the aquisition:

  • Loss of Baldwin to crusading army/unfulfilled vow= only went to Jerusalem after its capture.
  • Edessa was prosporous- Baldwin gave Godfrey 50,000 gold bezants to fund campaign.
  • Distracted Kerbogha- stopped Antioch siege for 3 weeks trying to capture Edessa.
  • Revealed his selfish aim- weakened crusader strength but did contribute in success of capturing Antioch.
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5. Leadership of the crusades 1095-1192

Bohemond's seizure of Antioch 1098

  • Lasted 7 months due to the formidable garrison: but showcased Raymond + Bohemond to be great military leaders.
  • Bohemond responsible for victory of Lake of Antioch- 1,500 of 5000 garrison killed.
  • Bohemond helped gain access to Antioch by negotiating with an Armenian to sneak in.

Effects of the siege:

  • Stained army/leader due to loss of life= famine of 1097 (Raymond attacked by Yahgi and banner of Adhemar Le Puy captured which drained morale).
  • Lost 2 leaders who retreated back to Constantinople- 1098 Taticius headed back to BE.
  • Stephen of Blois convinced Alexius to turn back from their plan to aid crusaders in Antioch.

Why did the siege succeed?

  • Foraging strategy- Raymond + Tancred foraged in surrounding areas to ensure supplies.
  • Finance- Raymond was wealthy so funded building fort to block access to Antioch.
  • Secret negotiations- Bohemond negotiated w/insider so avoided Kerbogha's relief force.
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6. Leadership of the crusades 1095-1192

Stage 2: Securing Antioch

  • Kerbogha abandoned siege of Edessa= 35,000 Turks outside Antioch so Bohemond closed city's gates to prevent crusaders escaping.
  • Bohemond elected by Council to replace Raymond as Commander.
  • Forced Kerbogha to retreat because: arranged for troops to leave via Bridge Gate, broke army into 7 divisions which tricked him into thinking it wasn't an all out offensive and he kept back extra troops as a rearguard which held off relief force.

Stage 3: Possession of Antioch

  • Bohemond held onto 2 strategically important places- Palace of Siyan + Tower of Iron Bridge.
  • 6 month long stalemate: when Raymond returned to health he refused to accept Bohemonds leadership (delayed crusade).
  • Crusade faced potential collapse: embassy sent by Raymond to Alexius for help with no reply.
  • Bohemond + Raymond attacked Nu'man and argued over territory.
  • Raymond re-joined crusade and Bohemond remained- loss of another leader.
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7. Leadership of the 1st crusade 1095-1192

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7. Leadership of the 1st crusade 1095-1192

Emergence of Godfrey of Bouillon as leader + capture of Jerusalem 1099

Fall of Raymond of Toulouse:

  • Began to march south w/Tancred as he wanted to establish a county near Tripoli (joined by Robert of Normandy, Godfrey and Robert of Flanders).
  • Raymond lost control: Caliph of Baghdad coming w/relief force so Raymond gave up on siege in Arqah.
  • Tancred and Robert shifted allegiance to Godfrey- march to Jerusalem.

Siege of Jerusalem

  • Took 5 weeks: crusaders divided efforts between Godfrey's followers.
  • Gained access and garrison withdrew to citadel and surrendered after Raymond offered protection but they were shortly killed/Muslims massacred.
  • More successful than Antioch: range of strategies (used a siege tower) and were a hardened core (experienced force of united soldiers that endured faltering leadership).
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8. Leadership of crusades 1095-1192

Securing control: Godfrey of Bouillon 

  • Mulsim counter-attack from Egypt, were outside Ascalon.
  • Godfrey called on his followers: launched surprise attack and captured their camp.
  • Dispute between Godfrey and Raymond continued- Godfrey elected ruler of Jerusalem so Raymond held onto Tower of David but soon handed over when his followers betrayed him.
  • Secured Jerusalem but was still a base for Muslims- future counter attacks made possible.

Summary of leadership

  • Crusaders were successful in spite of their weaknesses of divided aims and priorities.
  • Muslim disunity issues were greater than crusaders disuinty.
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1. Leadership of 2nd crusade

Personal and political rivalries 

  • Fall of Edessa to Zengi 1144- causes call for crusade to recapture.
  • Louis VII was a leader- an act of penance for burning church or fulfil dead brother's vow?
  • Conrad III lead in order to consolidate power, his rivals were forced to support him when they went on crusade. 
  • Departure date set as May 1147- given 6 months to prepare for journey to Outremer.
  • Conrad took Hungary route to BE (no sea route due to tensions w/Robert of Sicily).
  • Louis rejected Rogers offer to ship them- journey began with good relations.
  • Louis met Conrad's ambassadors who had made them preparations- good start.

Louis and Conrad's relationship with Manuel I

  • Needed a good relation for military support, supplies, Byzantine loyalty and delay.
  • Alexius had aided 1st crusade: gave Tacticus as a guide.
  • But Manuel did provide markets for them to buy goods and made ships available at his ports.
  • Manuel had treaty with Turks- poor relation may lead to betrayal of crusaders location.
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2. Leadership of 2nd crusade

  • Conrad had strong relations w/Manuel- strained when Manuel sent army to prevent them capturing territory on route.
  • Louis had bad relations w/Manuel- Louis was associated with Roger of Sicily.
  • Mistrust worsened 1147 when Roger's admiral attacked BE- Louis forced to swear oath of homage and promise not to take Byzantine territory in return for provisions.

German Campaign 1147-48

  • Conrad split army into 2 waves to get to Antioch- one went on inland route and other on the safer coastal route.
  • Overconfident- Conrad struggled to acquire supplies during journey and ambushed by Turks at Dorylaeum so retreated to Nicea to wait for French (casualty rate of 17%).
  • Conrad fell ill- rejoined at Council of Acre where they decided the future of the crusade.
  • Only reason for crusader survival was due to Louis handing over leadership to the Templars.
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3. Leadership of 2nd crusade

French Campaign 1147-48

  • Louis left for Outremer late 1147- Manuel organised for ships to take them to Antioch.
  • Kept army in formation and use of cavalry charge stopped a Turk raid.
  • Logistics was an issue- short of supplies as Manuel's guides told Turks their movements and they were expensive.
  • Forced to hand over authority to Templars- army survived but rep as leader wained.
  • Manuel's promised fleet was too small to carry entire army- only Louis and his officers could go so 7,000 endured march to Tarsus, reaching Antioch in March 1148.

Failure to consult leaders of crusader states

  • Conrad wrote letter in 1148 intending to capture Edessa- Outremer leaders hadn't told him it was unrealistic. They re-established a new goal, delaying crusade for 4 months.
  • Antioch plan- Prince Raymond made military proposal to Louis: help capture Aleppo to neutralise Muslim threat to Antioch (Zengi was Aleppo leader).
  • Louis refused- no hope of Antiochene military support.
  • Jerusalem plan decided at Council of Acre- prep to capture Damascus. 
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4. Leadership of 2nd crusade

Failure at Damascus 1148 and end of the crusade

  • Started well under King Baldwin III, marched troops through orchards of the West.
  • Conrad III won the river/established a new camp: water source from orchards.
  • Change of plan- attacked weak point in eastern walls as Nur ad-Din mobilised his Mosul and Aleppo troops.
  • Bad decision- no water supply so retreated after 3 days, ending the siege.
  • Conrad returned home and Louis stayed in Jerusalem to fulfil vow of spending a year there.
  • Raymond killed in June 1148 at Battle of Inab- northern crusaders buckled.
  • 1140- King of Jerusalem sold Edessa castles and the county was abandoned.
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1. Leadership of 3rd crusade


  • Battle of Hattin 1187- Jerusalem taken by Saladin and Chirstian control reduced to Tripoli, Acre and Antioch.
  • Emperor Fredrick Barbarossa of Germany joined (had 15,000 men at disposal), King Richard I of England and King Phillip II of France also joined: Richard was wealthy, Phillip had 2000 men.

Significance of death of Frederick Barbarossa

  • May 1189- Frederick's army marched towards BE for Asia Minor but they were unwelcome as Isaac prevented markets being set up/no supplies.
  • Isaac soon returned to agreement with Frederick so his troops could cross the Dardanelles/get supplies.
  • Reached Konya but Frederick died in the River Gosku after dismounting his horse- some troops left, some sailed to Antioch, some died of disease, others sailed to Antioch/Tripoli.
  • Those who reached Acre in weak condition 1190- further demoralised by death of Duke Frederick of Swabia in 1191, German campaign was over, his death fractured the army.
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2. Leadership of 3rd crusade

The rivalries of Richard I and Phillip II

-1189: met at Nonancourt and swore oath to protect crusaders together and share spoils of crusade equally and set out for Outremer.

Issue 1: Betrothal of Richard and Alice

  • Richard engaged to Phillip's sister but he wanted to marry Berengaria of Navarre to form alliance against enemt Raymond (he hid this plan from Phillip until he took crusade vow).
  • Engagement to Berengaria made public- Phillip released Richard from commitment for 10,000 marks.
  • Tension caused conflicts (Richard besieged Messina to collect sister's dowry/fund crusade).
  • Caused delay: Richard anxious to secure succession before crusade so had to wait for Phillip to release him from engagement to Alice. 
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3. Leadership of 3rd crusade

Issue 2: rival claims to Jerusalem 

  • Relations further worsened by connections to Jerusalem.
  • 2 rival claimants to throne: Phillip's cousin Conrad and Guy of Lousignan who was a feudatory of Richard/his wife's cousin).
  • Caused delay in attempt to retake Jerusalem- making decisions on ruler of Jerusalem: Guy chosen, to be inherited by Conrad. 

Issue 3: EU politics

  • Phillip back in France before crusade ended: extended rivarly back into EU.
  • April 1192- Richard heard of Phillip threatening border of his territory in Normandy and had been openly conspiring against him with his brother.
  • Richard ultimately chose to withdraw rather than besiege Jerusalem in July 1192.
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4. Leadership of 3rd crusade

Richard's decision to attack Sicily and Cyprus 

  • 1st stop was Sicily to collect sister's dowry from Tancred who refused to pay- Richard attacked Messina to force his hand.
  • Richard had 17,000 troops + 40,000 gold ounces when he left Sicily in 1191: 25 ships lost.
  • Richard invaded Cyprus and Isaac surrendered island- Richard sold it for 100,000 bezants to Templars.
  • Capture of Sicily and Cyprus further delayed the crusade.

Leadership at Acre and Phillip's return to France

  • Phillip arrived first whilst Richard was collecting funds.
  • Phillip provided 6 supply ships and began to construct siege weapons to attack city walls and Richard came with 25 ships, fleet of 200 and began to construct siege weapons.
  • By July, Muslim garrison surrendered after walls destroyed= month long argument over King of Jerusalem.
  • Richard supported Guy but Phillip supported Conrad- Guy made King.
  • Phillip returned to France and crusade lost another leader- RIchard in command.
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5. Leadership of 3rd crusade

Richard's leadership at Jaffa:

  • Planned to retake territory on Coast of Outremer with organised force; knights separted into 3 divisions/marched in columns.
  • Had infantry to fight off Turks surprise attacks and baggage train to ensure save journey.
  • Good leader- planned march formation and allowed infantry to alternate with baggage train.
  • Reformed formation and when Saladin attacked at Battle of Arsuf- he acted quickly.
  • Turks tried to force Franks into action by attacking Hopsitallers but he ordered them to wait for a general attack- launched a full-scale attack causing Saladin to give up; took Jaffa.

Reasons for Richard's decision not to attack Jerusalem 

1st march to Jerusalem:

  • Richard began slow advance there- wanted to secure castles to maintain supply lines.
  • Turned back, refortifying Ascalon as Army Council told him they couldn't win (Military orders told them Saladin would just recapture it, must deal with Saladin first).
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6. Leadership of 3rd crusade

The 2nd march to Jerusalem:

  • No more action till May 1192 due to ruler dispute- Guy made King but Conrad had support of French and they tried to seize control of Acre for him.
  • Barons of Jerusalem pressured Richard to revise agreement and replace Guy with Conrad (Guy given Cyprus to rule instead but Conrad still refused to help crusaders).
  • Crusade continued when Conrad was assasinated, replaced with Henry of Champagne.
  • Took Darun in May to block Saladin's link with Egypt; returned to Jerusalem to wait for Henry.
  • French refused committee's proposal that the combined forces strike Saladin's territory in Egypt- began to attack Jerusalem without English support.
  • Richard recommended withdrawal as he couldn't secure Jerusalem.

Final battle: Jaffa

  • Saladin attacked them before Richard's forces could withdraw- Jaffa surrendered but citadel held out- Richard's counter attack retook the city.
  • Richard fell ill so truce with Saladin- they'd keep Tyre/Jaffa, Saladin gets Ascalon and allows pilgrims access to Jerusalem (didn't achieve aim but did regain Chistian control of the coast)
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1. Crusader states of Outremer 1100-1192


  • Threat of Turk invasion- increased as Zengi began to consolidate Muslim territory 1127.
  • Battle of Harran 1104- Baldwin II (Count of Edessa) captured so regent Tancred took on his role and Baldwin had to forcefully remove him.
  • Antioch- nearest Frankish neighbour, Count acted as Antioch regent (Count Josclein helped repel Turkish threat 1119).
  • Increased threat from Zengi in 1143- fate depended on Jerusalem support.
  • Death of King Fulk in 1143 and succession crisis allowed Zengi to capture Edessa.
  • Edessa lost to Outremer after failure of second crusade in 1150s- Beatrice, wife of Count of Edessa, sold it to Byzantine Empire.


  • Bohemond of Taranto split it into provinces ruled by lords who owed feudal allegiance to prince.
  • 1st threat from Byzantines in North who claimed overlordship of principality.
  • 2nd threat from Turks on south-eastern frontier who tried to recapture it.
  • 1110-37 Kings of Jerusalem helped Antioch on 15 separate occasions.
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1. Crusader states of Outremer 1100-1192


  • Threat of Turk invasion- increased as Zengi began to consolidate Muslim territory 1127.
  • Battle of Harran 1104- Baldwin II (Count of Edessa) captured so regent Tancred took on his role and Baldwin had to forcefully remove him.
  • Antioch- nearest Frankish neighbour, Count acted as Antioch regent (Count Josclein helped repel Turkish threat 1119).
  • Increased threat from Zengi in 1143- fate depended on Jerusalem support.
  • Death of King Fulk in 1143 and succession crisis allowed Zengi to capture Edessa.
  • Edessa lost to Outremer after failure of second crusade in 1150s- Beatrice, wife of Count of Edessa, sold it to Byzantine Empire.


  • Bohemond of Taranto split it into provinces ruled by lords who owed feudal allegiance to prince.
  • 1st threat from Byzantines in North who claimed overlordship of principality.
  • 2nd threat from Turks on south-eastern frontier who tried to recapture it.
  • 1110-37 Kings of Jerusalem helped Antioch on 15 separate occasions.
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2. Crusader states of Outremer 1100-1192

Antioch: 1st problem

  • Needed a clear ruler otherwise it would disintegrate due to military threats; Jerusalem had to intervene for regency/succession issues.
  • Regency- Prince Bohemond I absent since 1100, succeeded by son in 1111.
  • By 1119, both regents dead so King Baldwin II stepped in for Bohemond II until 1126.

Antioch: 2nd problem

  • BE wanted to reclaim it; not always possible for Jerusalem to help due to Turkish threat.
  • In 1137, 45 and 59: Princes paid homage to BE to gain military support against Turks however Saladin captured Latakia in 1189 so Antioch was separated from Frankish neighbours.
  • Post 3rd crusade: Antioch in truce Richard II negotiatied with Saladin.
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3. Crusader states of Outremer 1100-1192


  • Established principality due to Raymond of Toulouse' efforts: controlled communities of Greek orthodox Christians, eastern Christians and Muslims.
  • Despite being vassal state of Jerusalem, tried to maintain independence. 
  • Relations changed when Turkish threat increased- more reliant. E.g. Count Raymond III imprisoned 1164 so King Almaric became regent until ransom of 80,000 bezants was paid.
  • Reliant on Jerusalem's military orders to defend key possessions (given it in 1144 and 1167).
  • Developed from largely independent into another territory the King/orders had to sustain.

Primacy of Jerusalem 

  • Divided into palatinates- areas ruled by lords who despite being royal vassals, could act without royal assent to defend their territory.
  • Relied on system of marcher lords who, for power, protected border regions w/military service.
  • Lord's power threatened King's- 1175 10 families controlled 24 powerful fiefs.
  • Skilled application of feudalism helped keep control- led to their primary in Outremer.
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4. Crusader states of Outremer 1100-1192

The absence of natural boundaries to the east

  • Had natural boundaries of Taurus mountain range in North and Lebanese Mountains in East: inadequate as there were huge gaps with large plains between mountains so easy to cross.
  • No fixed political boundary lines- Edessa relied on fortified towns and were vulnerable to attack from Mosul and Aleppo.
  • Antioch relied on Jerusalem then BE to fend of Turk attacks.
  • Tripoli vulnerable to Assasins in Nosairi mountains- Raymond II granted territory to Hospitallers.
  • Jerusalem distributed into separate fiefs- careful organisation ensured they were well selected.

The importance of seaports

Economic links

  • Principal seaports of Acre/Tyre: Outremer's lifeline= secure route for goods/pilgrims.
  • New route made possible numerous opportunities to boost Levantine economy.
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5. Crusader states of Outremer 1100-1192

  • Helped Outremer become part of large, pre-existing trade network- linked West, BE and Egypt and inport/export goods.
  • Ensured connection to Italian commerce- they established lucrative trading communities.
  • Communities made as part of a deal- Italian commune formed in territory granted to it in return for military support (Siege of Tyre 1124- Venetian fleet helped so got 1/3 of city/payments).
  • Provided revenue for settlers, service industries and local lords.

Military links 

  • Made it safer for Franks- after 1153 capture of Ascalon: no longer a safer place for Egyptian fleet to stop so couldn't harass Franks or attack EU ships.
  • Provided a means for outside help to reach Frankish settlers (1104 Genoese helped attack Acre and capture Gibelet).
  • 1167 and 1177 BE gave naval backing for Outremer's military campaigns.
  • Helped plug gap with outside support- evidence is success of 3rd crusade.
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6. Crusader states of Outremer 1100-1192

Trade between Muslim and Christian cities 

  • Trade generated revenue for Outremer- settlers needed outlet for goods to make money.
  • Muslim cities Aleppo/Damascus relied on trade to exchange goods w/BE and western EU.
  • Royal protection granted by Baldwin III to a Tyre Muslim to trade with Egypt; Muslims and Christians shared communities as it made profit for traders/revenue for local lords.
  • Laws of Jerusalem outlined taxes for trades- was a trading community that relied upon connections between its Chrisitan settlements.

Patterns of settlement and migration from EU

  • Franks were the minority in Outremer after 1st crusade .
  • Godfrey (1st ruler of Jerusalem) had only 300 knights after 1099 so struggled to impose authority/organise defences.
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7. Crusader states of Outremer 1100-1192

Reasons for settlement in Outremer 

  • Some crusaders felt obligated to stay if lords did and some stayed due their own volition.
  • Desire to live in Holy land for spiritual benefit.
  • Economic situation in Western EU- overcrowding, famine and demands for labour service whereas East had fertile land and had urban communities for trade.
  • Offered benefits to migrate- King Baldwin III in 1150 offered long-term leasing on housing and they only had to pay 1/7th crops to him.
  • Farmers in Outremer got a better deal than in EU- labour service undemanding.

Migration from EU: who settled there?

  • Many EU migrants in rural villages and communities of westerners in Outremer.
  • Urban settlers- Italian quarters in Outremer from Genoa, Pisa and Venice.
  • e.g. port of Tyre granted 1/3 of the land to a Venetian settlement.
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8. Crusader states of Outremer 1100-1192

Effects: patterns of settlement in Outremer 

  • 200 colonial settlements- small farms to fully planned developments.
  • e.g. village of Ramot near Jerusalem had fortified building for storage, construction around a road to transport produce and ***** fields for farming.

Absense of forced conversions

  • Rural: Frankish farmers lived and worked alongside indigenous Christian groups.
  • Urban: different groups worked together but in different quarters.
  • Muslims lived in Acre, Tyre and Tripli without having to convert.
  • Jerualem's population was 20,000 in early 12th century and grew to 30,000 (explains why towns were the focus of a campaign/crusade as they were centres of Frankish settlement).
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1. Defence of Outremer

Baldwin's consolidation of territory 1100-18

  • Baldwin faced several threats in 1100; had only Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Jaffa.
  • 1st threat- Fatimids of Egypt: launched 10 invasions, defeating Christians at Ramla.
  • 2nd threat- had to help fellow rulers in North, fighting of Mosul and Aleppo from Outremer.
  • 3rd threat- little Frankish control of territory in Outremer, Muslims used trade routes as staging posts for invasion.

Acquisiton of territory 

  • Prioritised securing coastal areas for western help to arrive/prevent naval attack from Egypt.
  • Acquired key coastal towns such as Asurf, Acre and Tyre with help of foreign support= Genoa.

Effect of Baldwin's defence strategy

  • Egyptians didn't succeed in annual invasion attempts and coastal towns grew however still threats for future rulers in 1118: expansion east caused tensions w/Damascus, pilgrims still faced raids on route, most ports in Frankish control bar Ascalon.
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2. Defence of Outremer

Adoption of local methods of fortification and the building of castles

  • Due to lack of natural boundaries, relied on fortified settlements for security.
  • Edessa relied on fortified towns e.g. Turbesel and Tripoli used castles for acquisition.
  • Antioch used castle at Margat to defend coastal access; had main port Latakia.
  • Jerusalem had Chastel Hernault in 1130s to defend road in and Jaffa had walls built.

Changing use of castles

  • Consolidation/submission- castles to establish control over captured territory till 1115.
  • Admin- once Frankish control was secure, they became symbol of local lord's authority.
  • Defence- from late 1160s used primarly for defence again (Muslim threat increased).
  • Castles seldom fell to direct assault despite having small garrisons.
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3. Defence of Outremer

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3. Defence of Outremer

Protection of the military orders: Templars and Hospitallers 

Military roles

  • Hospitallers shited from care-giver role in 1130s, helped defend when Fulk gave a castle 1136.
  • Hospitallers process of militarisation sped up in 1160s; given 12 castles.
  • Templars set up w/military role- 1129 received formal approval at Council of Troyes.

Role in military campaigns 

  • 1149- Templars helped Antioch against Nur ad-Din (sent 120 knights, 1,000 soldiers).
  • 1177- 80 Templars joined Frankish forces to defeat Saladin.
  • Hospitallers helped remove Egypt threat, 1167- offered 500 knights for the campaign, making them nearly bankrupt.
  • Hospitallers owed 100,000 bezants but still helped in battles from 1170-87 against Muslims.
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4. Defence of Outremer

Defence of settlements

  • Helped defend key urban cities- had to man the ramparts at Acre, Tripoli and Tyre.
  • Entrusted to govern/defend cities- Tortosa given to Templars 1152, Hospitallers got Sidon.
  • Rulers had insufficient resources: reliance on orders meant that burden on their brother knights grew as Muslim threat increased.

The control of border castles by Templars and Hospitallers

  • Had resources to garrison them- 1187 Baldwin IV gave Templars Jacob's Ford.
  • Rulers entrusted the orders- minimised capacity for regents to overpower rulers.
  • Had resources to build fortifications and government was weak.
  • States needed more money- Raymond III gave Hospitallers fortress at Turban in 1180 to pay off his debt to them of 80,000 bezants. 
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5. Defence of Outremer

Key strongholds 

  • Hospitallers had 25 castles and Templars 17- crucial that key passes through mountanious territory were monitored by a castle for front-line defence/duties on traders.
  • Ran smaller outposts to meet original aim of order to protect pilgrim roads.
  • By the end of the decade, orders lost control of most castles; without them, situation was desperate enough to convince EU rulers to launch 3rd crusade.

Financial support for the orders by EU nobles

  • Had property in western EU to fund activities; helped to build large estates with commanderies which were expected to pay a tax of 1/3rd of their revenue.
  • Developed international network to transfer messages/materials across wide distances/
  • Templars made further use of this by offering financial services in west to raise revenue.
  • Due to network, both orders could contribute to Outremer defence.
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6. Defence of Outremer

Early support for the military orders 

  • Templars leader Hugh of Payns went to EU to get financial support in 1127- Henry I donated silver/gold and helped to encourage the patronage of Templars.
  • 1139- Eleanor of Aquitaine gave Templars house in port of La Rochelle and 1141- Duke of Britanny gave Templars an island in Nantes.
  • One off noble donations and regular donations by local village landhodlers (1120 charter lists 44 individual donations) helped them build castles, pay mercenaries, supply garrisons.
  • Hospitallers also got support of wealthy patrons and received smaller donations.

How did donations develop over time?

  • Increased threat after 2nd crusade= large increase in EU donation to orders.
  • 1172- Henry II of England would pay for 200 knights to stay in Jerusalem.
  • EU nobles/churchmen helped generate environment of patronage for orders- Pope Celestine II published a buull in 1144 which granted 1/7th indulgence for donators to Templars.
  • King Henry II gave Templars right to assert 2,000 acres of woodland. 
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7. Defence of Outremer

Lack of support for states from Byzantium and Europe 

Byzantine support 1099-1144

  • Baldwin III King of Jerusalem sold fortresses in Edessa to BE late 1150- relations improved.
  • Positive relations cemented by marriage alliances- Manuel married Frankish bride 1161, 1158 King Baldwin III married Manuel's niece.
  • Better relations led to practical support and co-operation between BE and Franks.
  • Manuel offered support for at least 2 Frankish campaigns that wouldn't have a direct impact on BE/further territorial interests.

Reversal of relations 

  • Good relations between BE and Outremer ended when Manuel died in 1180- replaced by Adronicus who had no desire of relations w/Franks, allied with Saladin mid 1180s for power.
  • Decline in Franco-Byzantine relations= no further support from BE and Saladin could pursue campaign against Outremer with renewed vigour.
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8. Defence of Outremer

EU support between the crusades

  • EU was Outremer's lifeline- without their support, Frankish control would cease in the states.
  • Venetian fleet helped capture Tyre 1124 and Ascalon in 1153- pilgrims helped for money.
  • After 2nd crusade, Antioch faced threat of Muslim invasion- appeal for help by Louis ignored.
  • Many more ignored (between 1177-84, 7 crusade letters authorised but no crusade till 1189).
  • Turned to establishing relations w/Muslims to handle the threat- 1171 King Almaric did so.
  • Main effect of no EU support- borders began to contract 1170s.
  • Insufficient defence: Tripoli castles lost to Nur in 1160s, 1179- Franks defeated in Banyas and Saladin destroyed Jacob's ford castle.
  • Without EU, Outremer rulers didn't have sufficient resources to maintain defences (feudal lists- could only call up to 2,000 knights compared to 6,000 in 1st crusade).
  • Bad knightly resources and EU unwillingness to help/bad relations with BE helped Saladin penetrate Outremer defence in the late 1180s.
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1. Government of Outremer

Rule of Baldwin I and Baldwin II

Reign of Baldwin I 

  • Strong reign- consolidated territories and established clear overlordship system over vassals.
  • Authority over Church: patriarch of Jerusalem deposed by Baldwin in 1102 as he opposed him.
  • Intervention in the affairs of the kingdom were successful: helped w/Tripoli succession in 1109.
  • Defence of the kingdom: actively defended against Turkish threat, consolidated territory.
  • Intensive castle building programme began by Baldwin- Montreal constructed in 1115.

Reign of Baldwin II 1118

  • Eustace (Baldwin's brother) was heir but Baldwin claimed throne- his presence in Jerusalem secured him the kingship as well as key supporters.
  • Effective defender- acted at Antioch's regent till 1126 (6 trips there to resolve issues/defend).
  • Continued Baldwin's strategy of territorial expansion to minimise Muslim threat to holy city.
  • His aggressive policies/shady succession caused instability in the government.
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2. Government of Outremer

  • 1st issue: rebellion- 1123 he was captured in a military campaign and released in 1124.
  • 2nd issue: church- patriarch of Jerusalem tried to claim Jaffa, Baldwin refused.
  • 3rd issue: succession- no son, married Melisende to Fulk and named joint heirs.
  • These occured due to his absense being in Antioch- nobels could rebel.

Baldwin III and conflict with Queen Melisende 1131

  • Acession to throne created conflict between Montlhery's (Melisende's family and Count Hugh of Jaffa are members) + Angevins (newly represented in East by Count Fulk of Anjou).
  • Conflict- Fulk put Angevins in key positions of Jerusalem nobility to consolidate position and treid to rule without Melisende's input.
  • Hugh revolted in 1134 against Fulk: supposed to have a trial by combat but he retreated to Ascalon and made treaty w/Muslims against Fulk.
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3. Government of Outremer

The power of Queen Melisende 

  • Fulk gave her a greater role in everyday gov to avoid animosity towards his leadership.
  • Baldwin III of age in 1145: Melisende was unprepared to give her role over.
  • Baldwin tried to resolve in 1152- requested formal division of kingdom but she ignored.
  • Melisende was beseiged in Jerusalem, forced back to Nablus= Baldwin now undisputed ruler.

The rule of Baldwin III

  • Built castle at Gaza, cutting vital road link between Ascalon + Egypt and acquired Ascalon in 1153= key port for control of Outremer's coast.
  • Crusader states bowed to his primacy: Joscelin II of Edessa captured 1150, Raymond of Tripoli murdered 1152 so all looked to him to restore stability.
  • His lords forced to submit: some in Jerusalem ruled over vast fiefs and ignored him, made to return their fiefs if they did.
  • Ensured stable succession- brother Almaric succeeded him in 1163 (well established in Jaffa).
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4. Government of Outremer

Rule of 'leper king' Baldwin IV

  • Almaric died 1174: gov divided by factionalism as he married twice so divided the nobility.
  • 13 years old- too young so one of Alamric's closest advisors Miles of Plancy was regent.
  • Count Raymond of Tripoli regent after Plancy dies in 1174- paralysed gov as he wanted power.

Baldwin's leprosy

  • Unable to have children: prioritised issue of Sybil's marriage to get a male heir.
  • Regent Raymond worried that Sybil's husband would diminish his power so intervented before Baldwin IV's candidate of Hugh reached Jerusalem.
  • 1180- Raymond + Bohemond III of Antioch invade, wanted Sybil to marry Ibelin but Baldwin wanted Guy of Lusignan, Raymond's attempt to raise his status failed.
  • Guy made regent due to Saladin threat; lords didn't obey him so Saladin plundered Galilee.
  • Baldwin lost faith in Guy and retook control of kingdom.
  • Raymond's desire for power weakened the gov; Saladin able to act due to gov ineffectiveness.
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5. Government of Outremer

Growing divisions: the succession crisis of 1185

  • Sybil's son Baldwin V crowned King/co-ruler which infuriated Guy- he refused Baldwin access to port of Ascalon.
  • Raymond appointed regent in 1185- his faction was popular with the King.

Raymond's fall from power

  • Joscelin III of Courtenay convinced Raymond to retreat to his lordship territory of Tiberias.
  • Sibyl's faction were 1st to act- crowned Queen and Guy was her King.
  • Raymond's faction met at Nablus planning to crown Isabel/Humphrey, instead of accepting it, Humphrey heard of Guy's coronation and paid him homage.

Effects of the divisions

  • Divided nobility: despite Guy ruling, 2 factions still existed so had an unorganised offensive.
  • Inactive gov: crippled by factionalism (unable to convince West to help).
  • Cease in hostilities: Raymond made truce w/Saladin in 1185.
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6. Government of Outremer

Significance of Raymond of Tripoli's truce with Saladin 

The first hositilies 

  • Made truce when he was Baldwin V's regent- logical as kingdom was too divided to attack.
  • 1187- Reynald of Chatillon raided a Muslim caravan which he refused to return= Saladin attacked Kerak and Montreal.
  • Raymond asked Saladin to help against Guy's forces in return for 7,000 of them to journey through Galilee to besiege Acre in 1187.
  • Force sent to Tiberias to encourage Raymond to restore relations w/Guy but lauched attack on Saladin's forces (outnumbered= only had 130 knights and 300 men).
  • 1187- Saladin abandons agreement and lays siege to Raymond's town of Tiberias.
  • Guy suffered a defeat at the Battle of Hattin and Jerusalem fell shortly after.
  • Stage was set for the 3rd crusade.
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1. Changing Muslim response to the crusades

Why did the Muslim opposition to the 1st crusade fail?

Sunni Seljuk Turk and Shi'ah Fatimid Egypt divide:

  • 11th century- Islam split into 2 which led to rise in rival dynasties who both wanted to rule. 
  • When crusaders arrived in Asia Minor 1097, disunity prevented effective Muslim counter-attack.
  • Sunni's believed the line of descent had differing paths whereas Fatimids claimed they were direct descendants of Ali Caliph.

Killij Arslan and Kerbogha 

  • Was the Seljuk Sultan of Rum: failed to stop crusading armies descent into Outremer meant his rep as a Sultan was shattered.
  • Kerbogha was powerful ruler of Northern Iraq- partly responsible for Seljuk Empire disunity.
  • Since 1095, he was trying to expand his own kingdom/influence, capturing Mossul 1095.
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2. Changing Muslim response to the crusades

Weaknesses in 1095

  • Several prominent figures died 1090s; transforming political landscape of Muslim empires.
  • 1- 1092: Malik Shah's vizier killed and he died later causing succession crisis of Seljuk Empire.
  • 2-1094: Egyptian vizier died as did Fatimid Caliph so they also faced a succession crisis.
  • Fatimids soon resumed attacks/retaking Jerusalem in 1098= death had short-term effect.
  • Sunni's empire collapsed into rival terriroties ruled by different atabegs= long-term effect.
  • Following factors divided the Sunni's: Malik left Aleppo to Ridwan who was unpopular, Atabeg of Mosul threatened Ridwan's rule, Ridwan's brother tried to stop him increasing possessions in Syria.
  • Infighting caused disintegration of Seljuk Empire and group of rival atabegs= no surprise that Fatimids took Jerusalem in 1098 or that the Muslim counter-attack was ineffective, too divided.
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3. Changing Muslim response to the crusades

The significance of Killij Arslan's defeat at Nicea 1097 

Background to the siege of Nicea and the Siege

  • May 1097: could've destroyed prince's armies due to their staggered departure before they sieged Nicea and caused them to retreat.
  • Killij was occupied so Muslim strength not utilised- 7,500 knights + 5000 infantry began siege.
  • Crusaders dual strategy of land-based blockade to get supplies/block garrison caused surrender of Nicea; Killij was outnumbered so fled South.
  • Fleet from Alexius used to blockade water side of Nicea- garrison surrendered.

Why did Killij Arslan fail?

  • Arrived too late- busy in conflict w/Danishmend Turks over Malatya.
  • Crusaders were prepared- discussed strategy, secured supplies.
  • Difficult position with crusaders surrounding city and already weakened by previous campaign.
  • Loss of Nicea was a costly error- surrender meant loss of capital, family and money.
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4. Changing Muslim response to the crusades

The significance of Killij Arlsan's defeat at Dorylaeum 

  • Crusaders had 50,000 and 7,000 knights- Arslan had 6,000 troops.
  • Tried to increase chances w/diplomacy (unite fellow Muslims/made alliance with former enemy Danishmend emir).
  • Seljuk Turks and Danishmend turks attacked Bohemond's contingent at Dorylaeum 1097 but Godfrey arrived and outnumbered Arslan.
  • 4,000 Christians killed but army undefeated, countinued to Anatolia to Holy Land.

Why was the Battle of Dorylaeum significant?

  • Shattered Arslan's rep as a powerful Sultan.
  • Main consequences of his defeat were: BE occupation- with his forces weakened the BE took the opportunity to reoccupy Nicea/surrounding towns, Turkish forces wiped out (3,000 killed), education (crusaders copied Turk tactics e.g. feigned retreat).
  • At end of 1097- intitial attempt to prevent 1st crusade failed as the muslims were disunited.
  • By the time they decided to co-operate it was too late- Nicea surrendered and authority of Turkish rulers were weakend, BE had re-established its grip on the region. 
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5. Changing Muslim response to the crusades

The defeat of Kerbogha's force at Antioch 1098

Early attempts

  • Franks laied siege in Oct but Turks only organised relief force for city's garrison in December.
  • Many knights survived as Bohemond held cavalry in formation but loss of many infantry.
  • New force of 12,000 under Ridwan set out in Feb 1098- crusaders w/700 mounted knights.
  • Despite numerical superiority, Turks defeated by Bohemond's leadership (surprise/cavalry charge to force retreat).

Kerbogha's final attempt

  • May 1098- crusaders able to attack Antioch w/no effective opposition, so Kerbogha got 35,000 Turks to begin assult on Antioch.
  • Bohemond's victory on 28 June, Turks contributed to their downfall due to: time wasting (Kerbogha spent 3 weeks trying to get Edessa), division amongst allies (didn't yield total authority), poor generalship on the field, Seljuk Fatimid divide (Fatimids didn't send army to support him and encouraged crusaders to focus on getting territory in North not South).
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6. Changing Muslim response to the crusades

The fall of Jerusalem 1099 

The march South

  • Marched South through Asia Minor with no opposition and successfully take Antioch + Edessa.
  • Rivarly between rulers of Aleppo/Damascus grew= more in-fighting than opposing crusaders.
  • Seljuk division exacerbated as it didn't control all Syria/Palestine- the Arab emirs that ruled some of the territory didn't want to help the Seljuks and Fatimids.
  • Tension between rulers + ruled: Syrians were Shi'ah but ruled over by Sunni= won't unite.
  • Impact of divisions: Muslim towns preferred to negotiate- emir of Homs gave crusaders cash for city's safety or others offered them guides so they'd bypass their towns.
  • Biggest division: Egyptian fatimids in control of Jerusalem negotiated with crusaders and talks ended in 1099 when Egyptian vizier presented final offer in June 1099- already at Bethlehem.
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7. Changing Muslim response to the crusade

The failure to defend Jerusalem 

  • When crusaders reached J, had recently been captured by Egyptian Fatimids from Seljuk.
  • Fatimids didn't fortify city for siege and siege machines they used were dissembled- wood hidden was found by crusaders to make their own siege towers.
  • Fatimid commander of Jerusalem had no immediate support from Egypt.
  • Reason the siege was a success for crusaders- commander faced too great a challenge.
  • Crusaders attacked on 2 fronts but garrison not big enough to defend both, moved siege tower to displace troops.
  • By the time Fatimid al-Afdal arrived w/20,000 it was too late.
  • Fatimids (delayed by overconfidence/rivarly w/Syrian Muslims) failed to defend Jerusalem.
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7. Muslim response to the crusades

Muslim power increase 1144-69

Zengi and seizure of Edessa 1144


  • Sunni Governor of Mosul was 1st to use jihad rhetoric, claimed Islamic world needed to be brought under one ruler so made caliph the symbolic head but he exercised practical power.
  • Success-force/diplomacy carved large principality in Syria/Iraq- spread power from Mosul to Aleppo and reduced Frankish threat by capturing castles near Tripoli.

Limits to Zengi's power

  • Damascus Turks- Damascus' atabeg strengthened power by alliance/Franks against him 1140.
  • Artuqid Turks- limited his control of territory around Aleppo/Mosul.
  • Seljuk Turks of Anatolia- block to the spread of his influence in north-west of his territories.
  • Franks- threat from Tripoli e.g. Count launched unsuccessful attack mid 1130s.
  • Byzantines- 1138 John Comnenus attacked Shaizar/almost succeded in its capture.
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8. Changing Muslim response to the crusades

The seizure of Edessa

  • Was a reaction to political situation in Islam/Christian territories- triggered by Count Joscelin II of Edessa and Artuqid Turks alliance (threatened Zengi but gave him opportunity).
  • 1144- Joscelin responded to Artuqid's request for help, Zengi could weaken them by removing ally/build jihad rep as people said he seemed focused more on fighting against Muslims.
  • Late 1144- began to lay siege, dug tunnels under northern walls/built siege towers.
  • Ordered wooden props of tunnels to set fire- walls collapsed and citadel captured (15,000 Edessans dead).

Effect of the seizure

  • Restored his status as leader of jihad against Franks.
  • Immediately tried to consolidate victory; capturing Suruc in 1145.
  • Zengi had set the stage for a Muslim counter-attack and Frank power began to slip.
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9. Changing Muslim response to the crusades

Nur ad-Din's consolidation of power 1146-54

Nur ad-Din's goals

  • 1146 Zengi killed so his sons inherited territories, Nur got Aleppo, closest to Frankish border.
  • Intitial goals: unite Syria under 1 ruler, reduce Frankish threat on western border.
  • To unite Syria he'd need control of principal cities of Damascus and Homs but would only be secure if he reduced Frankish influence in Edessa and minimised Antioch threat.

Tackling the Frankish threat: Antioch

  • Fall of Edessa 1144- biggest threat to Aleppo/Nur's power so forms alliance with Seljuk sultan of Rum and captured nearby territory to secure access.
  • 1149- direct assault on city's key strongholds w/help from Damascene force.
  • Battle of Inab a huge victory for Nur- continued campaign in Antioch before making treaty w/Franks and taking territory from Antiochenes.
  • 1150- took control of region around Bira- extending his border westwards successfully.
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10. Changing Muslim response to the crusades

Tackling the Frankish threat: Edessa

  • Edessans tried to retake city in 1146: Nur arrived w/Aleppan troops (30,00 massacred).
  • After giving Damascus support in siege- rekindled alliance w/Sultan of Rum to subdue fortresses in Edessa.
  • Last major stronghold Turbessel captured 1151 by Nur: could focus on unifying Muslim Syria.

The unification of Muslim Syria under one Muslim ruler 

  • 1149- Nur's brother died so he tried to capture Mosul to expand empire east but bad timing= Damscus ruler also died and there was an Antioch campaign and Edessan noble captured.
  • Instead, he began consolidation programme in Syria and lay claim to land in South.
  • Tried to convince Damascans to accept him as ruler but ruler installed formed Frank alliance to prevent him taking the city.
  • Nur began attack in 1154 when ruler was desposed.
  • Last step to unify- take last stronghold of Burid dynasty, achieved in 1155 by capturing Ba-albek. Nur free to focus efforts on reduction of crusader states, getting Egypt and Mosul.
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11. Changing Muslim response to the crusades

Nur ad-Din's growing rift with Saladin 

The growth of Nur ad-Din's power

  • Success in uniting Muslim Suria and campaigns in Edessa/Antioch helped cement jihad image.
  • 1154- earned place as Zengi's successor, contained threat to Syria many times.
  • 1- 1156: began to resolve Harenc issues, negotiated a treaty to share revenues between them.
  • 2- 1157: sucessfully repelled attack on Shaizar by Franks.
  • 3- 1164: defeated Christians at Artah and captured Frank nobles at Battle of Harim.
  • Nur continued to act as jihad ruler- 1159 made truce w/BE Manuel against Killij.
  • Franks did defeat him in 1163: his power increased but not ready for full-scale attack.

Issue of Egypt

  • Egypt could help their lack of resources- rich port of Alexandria but under Fatimid control.
  • Nur's situation endangered by alliance against him between Egyptian vizier/Franks.
  • 1167: vizier offered Franks 400,000 dinars if they'd stay in Egypt until Nur was defeated.
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12. Changing Muslim response to the crusades

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12. Changing Muslim response to the crusades

Egyptian campaign: rise of Saladin 

  • Saladin rose to prominence in Nur's Egypt campaign- acted as second in command.
  • 1167- they attacked and captured Alexandria, Saladin was in charge of defence.
  • Marched to Cairo to defend it and Almaric withdrew 1169; 1st in command Shirkuh made himself Egyptian vizier's replacement (yielded practical power).
  • 1169- Shirkuh died after brief vizier rule, replaced by Saladin.

Rift between Nur ad-Din and Saladin

  • Initially, Saladin as vizier seemed a victory for Nur but rather than helping him spread power across Fatimid Egypt, tried to bolster power base- put family in gov key positions.
  • Created military corp to strengthen position further.
  • 3 instances Saladin failed to act according to Nur: 1171- they planned a joint offensive but Saladin retreated too early, 1173- Saladin attacked castles at Montreal and Nur planned to join but Saladin left to consolidate Egyptian territory, 1173- Nur ordered financial audit of Egypt but Saladin replied with gifts not promise of an annual tribute.
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13. Changing Muslim response to the crusade

The power of Saladin: consolidation of power in Egypt and Syria 1169-84

Control of Egypt

  • Strengthened hold on Egypt by: placing family in key gov positions, created military unit responsible to him, prioritised Egypt's needs over Nur's.
  • 1st step to win over Egyptians: appointed Sunni Abbasid as caliph to end Fatimid dynasty.
  • Death of Fatimid caliph was a turning point in his control; cancelled unpopular trading tax (mukus) in Fustat/Cairo to construct image of selfless leader.

Death of Nur ad-Din

  • 1174- broadened his horizons beyond Egypt's borders, Nur's son given Alepo and nephew Mosul.
  • To be most powerful ruler/next leader of jihad, he had to: reconstruct Nur's territories under one leader, legitimise authority outside Egypt by negotiations, mainain loyalty to predecessor's claims by slow acquisition of power.
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14. Changing Muslim response to the crusades

Stage 1: Damascus 

  • Easiest conquest: 1174 marched peacefully into city and Franks didn't help Damsacenes so Saladin proclaimed himself as ruler and married Nur's widow in 1176.
  • City submitted itself, gave him troops for Aleppo campaign (now had Egypt/northern Syria).

Stage 2: Aleppo 

  • Had to take it by force from a legitimate heir: an alliance between Aleppo/Mosul and struggled to get Abbasid caliph of Baghdad to support him. 
  • Eventual submission in 1183, took 9 years.

Stage 3: Mosul

  • 1185- 1st took territory around city then began to besiege it.
  • Mosul's new king refused battle and Saladin fell ill- made permanent peace w/Mosul.
  • 1186- Mosul King accepted Saladin's overlordship, made preace treaty so Mosul would provide him with troops against Franks: at peak of power as a Muslim ruler.
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14. Changing Muslim response to the crusades

Stage 1: Damascus 

  • Easiest conquest: 1174 marched peacefully into city and Franks didn't help Damsacenes so Saladin proclaimed himself as ruler and married Nur's widow in 1176.
  • City submitted itself, gave him troops for Aleppo campaign (now had Egypt/northern Syria).

Stage 2: Aleppo 

  • Had to take it by force from a legitimate heir: an alliance between Aleppo/Mosul and struggled to get Abbasid caliph of Baghdad to support him. 
  • Eventual submission in 1183, took 9 years.

Stage 3: Mosul

  • 1185- 1st took territory around city then began to besiege it.
  • Mosul's new king refused battle and Saladin fell ill- made permanent peace w/Mosul.
  • 1186- Mosul King accepted Saladin's overlordship, made preace treaty so Mosul would provide him with troops against Franks: at peak of power as a Muslim ruler.
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15. Changing Muslim response to crusades

Securing his position 

  • Encouraged Abbasid caliph of Baghdad to formally invest him as city's ruler; was invested w/Egypt, Yemen and most of Syria but new caliph refused to invest him with Mosul.
  • His emirs could be safe knowing their power flowed from a legitimate ruler.
  • Needed to quell personal threats- al Salih's supporters sponsored 13 assasins to kill him.
  • Revenge 1176- took army to Assasin's castle and his men plundered surrounding region.

Tackling the Frankish threat 

  • Preoccupied trying to bring Muslim Syria/Jazira under control until 1184 but launched successful offensives into Jerusalem 1170-83, acquired Gaza, Bura and plundered Galilee.
  • Setbacks- defeated by Franks in 1177 and lost 1,000 men, 750 wounded, 1182- failed to capture Beirut, 1183- plundered Galilee but failed to start battle, 1183- besieged Kerak but didn't take it/withdrew.
  • Tackling Frank threat was a distraction, not a goal: made truces to solve Islamic disuity.
  • Truce w/BE emperor negotiated with border security in mind: ready to take on Franks.
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16. Changing Muslim response to the crusades

The attack on Tiberias

  • 1187- leader of jihad, unpopular with Abbasid caliph but had combined forces of three countries to call upon (crusaders struggled to get Western support).
  • Invaded Jerusalem w/7000- entered Galilee under treaty with Raymond of Tripoli.
  • Numerical superiority led to his success: 30,000 men of 12,000 cavalry and King Guy had 20,000 with 1,200 mounted knights.
  • 1187- planned to lure Franks in, they attacked and captured Tiberias but citadel held out.

The battle of Hattin

  • Guy took army in- no longer had access to water supply in city so camped overnight.
  • Saladin's troops raided camp so Guy changed strategy to head to springs but Saladin prevented them (Guy gathered troops on hills at Homs of Hattin as last attempt).
  • Guy launched 2 cavalary charges without effect, taken prisoner by Saladin and truce cross taken.
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17. Changing Muslim response to the crusade

The effects of the Battle of Hattin 

  • Victory opened way for Saladin to control Jerusalem: Reynald beheaded and Guy sent away.
  • Fear of Saladin + the fact that most city garrisons in Jerusalem sent men to help Guy, meant most cities capitulated due to lack of forces.
  • If any city offered significant resistance he bypassed it e.g. Antioch/Tortosa stayed w/Franks.

The fall of Jerusalem to Saladin 1187

  • Was defended by Balian of Nablus but its defence was undermanned; city fell after short siege in 1187.
  • Saladin improved rep by allowing citizens of city to ransom themselves (e.g. 7000 of poor granted freedom for 30,000 bezants).
  • Muslim forces had to commit to sieges to consolidate, Saladin occupied himself with: taking territory south to Antioch, taking defences further North, long sieges of isolated castles.
  • Dedicated his time again to a consolidation programme- helped ensure that Jerusalem would remain in Muslim hands rather than fall to 3rd crusaders.
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18. Changing Muslim response to crusade

Siege of Acre and Battle of Arsuf 1188-91

Saladin's position after 1187

  • Faced many issues: loss of troops, funding (cost his emirs lots to stay out in field), Frankish resitance (had Jerusalem but others continued to fight e.g. couldn't capture Tripoli).

1189: beginning of Siege of Acre

  • Acre- belonged to Saladin, could be a possible naval base for Franks to get to Holy city.
  • 1189- Guy began siege, Saladin prevaricated but soon launched a failed attack on his camp.
  • Crusaders responded by attacking Saladin (failed).
  • Saladin requested help from Northern Syria allies but arrived too late in 1190 so Saladin delayed further action.
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19. Changing Muslim response to crusade

Why did 1190 campaign to relieve Acre fail?

  • Both sides trapped in stalemate due to failure to co-ordinate Muslim allied forces.
  • Saladin slowed progress by focusing on conquest of Beaufort castle; cost him lots of money to keep troops on the field and no major action till July 1190.
  • Franks attacks on their camps were repelled= 12,000 killed but were able to recover.
  • Saladin began withdrawing but Franks tried to march to take Haifa, were defeated.

The fall of Acre

  • Main causes of his failures to stop Franks as Mulsim garrison surrender in 1191:
  • 1- 2 year breathing space let Guy strengthen his troops.
  • 2- Guy had support from King Phillip II of France + King Richard I of England.
  • 3- Saladin outnumbered (not all re-joined him such as Killij Arslan and Zangi).
  • 4-Christian blockade of city preventing supplies entering- starved out.
  • Saladin was forced to seek terms- payed 200,000 dinars, return Truce cross and free prisoners if Christians released Muslim prisoners (Richard I massacred 2,700 prisoners- fear tactic).
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20. Changing Muslim response to crusade

The Battle of Arsuf 

  • King Richard's troops began march to retake Jaffa 1191 but Saladin intercepted.
  • Saladin retreated from battle; Richard undefeated despite Saladin's force of 30,000.

Saladin's success in keeping Muslim control of Jerusalem in 1192

  • Saladin divided his efforts across Outremer, allowing Franks to capture Acre/Jaffa.
  • Focused on defence in Jerusalem so it remained in his hands- fort building, slaves built defences at Ascalon).

Prep for Richard I's 1st attempt on Jerusalem

  • Saladin tried to prevent Franks from acuiring more Muslim strongolds- destroyed Ascalon fortifications/Ramla castle).
  • Requested troops to assist in defence from Egypt- improving morale.
  • Richard withdrew from 1st march to Jerusalem due to strong defence.
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21. Changing Muslim response to crusades

Richard I's 2nd attempt

  • Saladin took more action to strengthen hold: allowed troops to return home early to rest/return in May, deployed field army sensibly, developed his intelligence network (spies told him plans, poisoned water supplies outside city).
  • Saladin left city when 2nd march came, safe knowing reinforcements were coming.
  • Richard came but soon departed, city was safe.

The truce

  • Jerusalem no longer a target for 3rd crusade- truce w/Franks in 1192 and secured a long-term Frankish presence on the coast.
  • Confirmed that city was under Muslim control- truce lasted 3yrs but city itself under their rule till 1229.
  • When Saladin died 1193, he was a strong Muslim ruler and launched a jihad that destroyed much of the legacy of the 1st crusade.
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1. What explains the failure of the 4th crusade

Course of the 4th crusade

  • crusade called 1198 for recapture of Jerusalem by Pope, not sack of Constantinople.
  • 1199- nobility of France + Flanders signed up to crusade.
  • Thibault III died 1201 and many made own plans of travel= small force in Venice left.
  • Dandolo offers solution- asks them to delay and help him recapture Zara for Venetians, they can postpone their debt but caused their first diversion by capturing Zara.
  • Crusaders accept offer to help Alexius claim BE throne to get money, funds and troops.
  • 2nd diversion in 1203- forced emperor to flee Constantinople for Alexius but he didn't keep his side of the promise= attack the following year and take supplies by force.
  • 1204- crusaders return home and the rest set themselves up as rulers of Romania.
  • Objective to recapture Jerusalem unachieved= diverted twice/pre-occupied with BE.

Interpretations on who's to blame

  • Influence of Innocent III: ill-thought and failure to prevent diversion.
  • Leadership: lacked necessary clout to achieve goals.
  • Venetians: Dandolo shaped the crusade according to his own priorities.
  • Alexius: would've succeeded if he never made outlandish unrealistic promises to crusaders.
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2. What explains the failure of the 4th crusade

Innocent's role in the failure of the 4th crusade

  • Saladin dies 1193 and Muslim empire divides- Franks take business as usual approach.
  • Appeared that the zeal to regain Jerusalem had failed.
  • When Pope was elected, he hoped to secure territory of papacy from political threats.
  • Other concern was fate of Outremer/Jerusalem- neither was under immediate threat.
  • Before his election 1197 a crusade set out by Henry IV of Germany but failed.
  • 1198- issued crusading bull Post Miserabile setting out organisation of crusade.

Innocent's crusade reforms 

Attracting crusaders

  • Offered a new plenary indulgence to more groups: self funding crusader, crusader who's journey was funded by another, non-crusader who paid for another to go on crusade.
  • Hoped to have 2 benefits: bolster funding and discourage non-combatants.
  • Pope abandoned long-standing doctrinal position about powers of a wife (dont need her permission to go on crusade) to bolster recruits.
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3. What explains the failure of the 4th crusade

Maximising recruitment 

  • 1198- set up general executive office for 'Business of the cross' to ensure a named individual was responsible for different areas under control of Rome so Pope had less to control.
  • Made official appointments (Fulk of Neuilly, Abbot Martin of Paris).
  • Borrowed from successful feature of 3rd crusade- appointed legates for powerful leaders: Peter of Capuano sent to England/France and Soffredo sent to Venice to make preparations.

Ensuring success

  • Main problems of past crusades had been:
  • 1-Poorly defined nature of commitment- several nobles/followers abandoned 1st crusade.
  • Solution: Post Miserabile stated 2 years of service was required to fulfil vow.
  • 2-Lack of communication w/Outremer leaders before 2nd crusade led to inaction/dispute.
  • Solution: used papal legates to go to Outremer before the crusade.
  • 3-Cost of participation in 3rd crusade had been prohibitive to potential crusaders.
  • Solution: encouraged bishops to commit 1/13th of incomes and issues Graves orientalis terrae and ordered chests to be placed in churches.
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4. What explains the failure of the 4th crusade

Problems with Innocent III's plans 

Didn't secure powerful secular leadership 

  • Peter approached Richard I, asking for a 5year truce between him + Phillip but then also asked to release Bishop from imprisonment (step to far for Richard).
  • Richard died 1199 and succession crisis that followed ensured England was preoccupied.
  • Peter alienated Phillip as potential leader as he insisted that he should restore his lawful wife/send away new wife which he refused, Peter put France under interdict.
  • Phillip also too busy to lead- Richard's death allowed him to enlarge his kingdom.
  • German Holy Roman Emperor-Elect Phillip of Swabia wasn't considered as Innocent disputed his claim to imperial title.

Recruitment problems

  • Preachers failed to get recruits as they were controversial (Fulk had rumours of embezzlement of funds)= small force in Venice 1202.
  • Innocent involved in Henry IV's succession diverted recruits, failed to appreciate conceptions of chivalry and failed to recruit top strata of secular society.
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5. What explains the failure of the 4th crusade


  • Changed features of a crusade too much too fast- Church wide tax unsuccessful.
  • Fought conservative thinking with demand for 1/40th Church income.
  • Too short a deadline- only gave 6 months after bull was published so little time for leadership decisions, recruitment and arrangement of transportation to Outremer.

Innocent's determination to lead the crusade: attempts and failures

  • Partial blame for failure as he made initial plans without support from Kings/Emperors.
  • 3 key turning points in crusade leading to its eventual collapse:
  • 1- 1202: crusaders attack Zara on behalf of Venetians, rather than travel to Outremer.
  • 2- 1203: crusaders diverted to Constantinople to reclaim it for Alexius rather than Outremer.
  • 3: 1204: attack Constantinople and establish Romania- Peter absolves them of their vow.
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6. What explains the failure of the 4th crusade

Failure to influence Zara campaign

  • Attacked Zara under King of Hungary, Innocent had 2 methods to try prevent attack.
  • 1- Papal legate Peter had authority to make decisions on Pope's behalf.
  • 2- Communicate views to leaders (sent a letter forbiding attack/threatened excommunication).
  • Attack showed his impotence in controlling them; Peter endorsed attack for fear crusade force would disintegrate so Pope lost hope of directing course of campaign.
  • Papal letters were supressed rather than released- letter in Zara 1202.

Failure to prevent Constantinople diversion

  • Innocent was in talks with Alexius III over unifying eastern/western churches, used diplomacy to encourage him to leave crusade alone, when Prince Alexius presented plan to overthrow Alexius III the Pope opposed.
  • 1203- letter banning attacks on Christian lands without just cause. and letter of excommunication.
  • Sent a message w/envoy of bishops that any attack on Constantinople was prohibited.
  • Pope was powerless- symbol of papal authority removed with bulls supressed.
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7. What explains the failure of the 4th crusade

The neglect of the Holy Land 

  • 1204- Constantinople captured and Baldwin of Flanders elected as emperor, est. as Romania.
  • Pope had no influence so they didn't carry on crusade, mid 1205- Peter granted crusaders absolution from crusade vow without Pope's consent.

How did the size and leadership of crusading forces contribute to failure


  • Earliest leaders were barons from France/Flanders e.g. Thibault, Simon of Montfort, Reynald, Baldwin of Flanders, Hugh of Saint Pol- tight knit group.
  • Was a chance to escape threat to lands from Phillip II which intensified by Richard's death.
  • Leaders connceted by shared political situation/family/geograpy- brought wealth/vassals.
  • BUT: unable to recruit Kings (legates failed to convince them, Richard dies 1199).
  • Needed baronial support to get lords, needed mercenaries but had no King to hire them.
  • Lack of royal leadership meant no countrywide taxes/naval fleets.
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8. What explains the failure of the 4th crusade

Leadership's decisions: plan for 4th crusade

  • Devised by 3 counts from Northen EU, planned to send 6 reps to make agreements based on their decisions; had power to negotiate legal binding agreement on behalf of overlords.
  • Leaders agreed to sea travel- avoided BE. Needed to pay for a Venetian fleet.
  • Didn't tell crusaders that they've to sail to port Alexandria to capture rest of Egypt from Muslims.

Flaws in the plan

Problem 1: price of reliance on Venetians

  • Treaty of Venice 1201 terms were grant, assumed Venetians would provide transport for 33,500 men and 4,500 horses, 9 months of food and 30,000 Venetians.
  • Expected to meet 5,000 mark deposit, 85,000 marks in instalments and 1/2 of land acquired.
  • Over-ambitious transportation treaty- Venetian support a success but at a large price.
  • Treaty based on optimistic guesswork of envoy- guessed force of 35,000 for transportation when Venetians had only guaranteed 85,000 marks.
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9. What explains the failure of the 4th crusade

Problem 2: Size of forces

  • Only 12,000 of 35,000 came in 1202: 1,800 were knights and the rest were support troops.
  • Important figures arrived late so didn't leave Venice in time (papal legative/Germans late).
  • Most punctual troops forced to wait at Lido, island near Venice.

Effect of Thibault III of Champagne's death 1201

  • No principal leader-passed on responsibility to fulfil crusade vow to Reynald of Dampierre.
  • Selected Boniface of Montferrat as leader- leaders swore oath to acknowledge him as head.
  • Poor punctuality- last at Lido on 15th August 1202.
  • 1-Loss of support from knights in Champagne region- Reynald sailed directly to Outremer to fulfil vow rather than wait for Venetian gathering.
  • 2-Bonifaces' nationality caused friction between leaders- was Italian and othes were French.
  • 3-Connections to Boniface were controversial: friends with Phillip of Swabia (Pope's enemy in imperial succession crisis) and was close with Byzantium as wife was daughter of Isaac Angelus the deposed emperor.
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10. What explains the failure of the 4th crusade

The effect of the decision to avoid Venice 

  • Some contingents avoided Venice (only some formally agreed), some travelled via another route to Outremer, some avoided Venice as they had little appreciation of why it was important to meet there (didn't know of plan to attack Zara).
  • Even those aware (Louis of Blois) tried to back out of treaty- little faith in plan.
  • Around 300 knights arrived in Outremer rather than travelling with crusaders, the following are notable absentees from Venetian gathering:
  • 1- Reynald of Dampierre: felt obliged to fulfil Thibault's request so went direct to Outremer.
  • 2- John of Nesle: didn't join Baldwin of Flanders on sail as he was delayed at Marseilles for winter, chose to sail directly to Outremer which deprived Baldwin of half of his possible men.
  • 3- Walter of Brienne: helped Pope deal w/Southern Italy threat and once this was resolved he went to Acre.
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11. What explains the failure of the 4th crusade

Effect of finance on size of forces

  • Leaders who swore oath overreached themselves in Treaty; couldn't afford 20,000 troops.
  • Overly optimstic to assume noble support from EU would cover funding gap and inadequate funds worsened by Peter Capuano- absolving non-combatants from vow in 1202.
  • Helped chance of armies winning without infirm but deprived crusade of fee-paying personnel.

Consequences: in debt to Venetians

  • Venetians stopped all commercial activities for 18 months to prepare; by deadline, 500 ships ready to leave port but due to small force the leading nobles couldn't pay entire fee.
  • Signatories of Treaty relied on fact that other nobles would cover cost of their own troops.
  • With no fee-paying nobles, average fee per crusader was unaffordable.
  • With over 1/3 af anticipated forces at Lido, surprise leaders raised 51,000 marks.
  • Crusaders at Lido had little choice but to rely on governors of Venice to find solution to pay off 34,000 mark debt and resume 4th crusade.
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1. Impact of Dandolo on the 4th crusade

Why did Dandolo propose an attack on Zara?

  • 1- Zara's value: Venetians lost control of it 1186, key stop-off to Outremer + Dalmatian oak.
  • 2- Personal investment: primary supporter of Treaty of Venice- means to recover debt.
  • 3- Risk of violence: force of 12,000 crusaders near Venice, had to pay 51,000 marks to city.
  • 4- Desire for salvation: was old/took vow in 1202 and could take use of plenary indulgence.
  • Plan was a way to meet a religious goal and a political and economic one (for him/Venice).

How did his proposals weaken the crusade?

  • Leading figures opposed attack as it was a Christian city/ruled by King Emeric who took oath.
  • Vow meant all his lands were under legal protection of Pope- city under papal protection.

Divisions in crusading force

  • Boniface and Peter went to Rome to tell Pope- force lost commander-in-chief/papal authority.
  • Papal letter sent against attack but not shared publicly: some leaders left and some proceeded.
  • Majority of Venetian force and barons supported attack; crusade continued.
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2. Impact of Dandolo on the 4th crusade

How did the siege of Zara weaken the crusade?

  • 1st- delayed journey as they'd have to spend winter encamped outside Zara.
  • 2nd- several leading nobles abandoned (e.g. Simon began to question actions against Pope).
  • Morale worsened, compounded by Pope excommunicating crusaders at Zara.
  • Embassy sent to Rome to appeal this; Pope asked them to take an oath to avoid any more attacks on Christians without just case; French did, Venetians didn't so still excommunicated.
  • Gap grew between Venetian allies and original crusaders; different aims, army wanted to secure interests of city and crusaders wanted to fulfil vow/recapture Jerusalem.

Different views of the role of Venice and Dandolo

  • 1 Aim- improve Venetian trade material interests, get monopoly over Eastern trade.
  • 2 Aim- he had secret treaty w/Sultan of Egypt as it was rich/get more trade rights.
  • 3 Aim-Supports original plan and has trading interests in Zara, not Constantinople.
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1. Prince Alexius' failure to keep promises: cause

Prince Alexius' plan for the 4th crusade

  • Wanted to get father restored to imperial throne; got support from west EU courts.
  • Only major stumbling block was Constantinople's army; needed an army of his own.

The intervention of Prince Alexius: his proposal

  • Made appeal to crusaders via Phillip of Swabia in 1202 as Phillip's wife was his sister.
  • Envoy asked for crusaders help to restore his father to throne/crown him as co-emperor.
  • Prince offered: 200,000 marks, 10,000 troops, 500 knights, unite Eastern Christian church of BE back under control of Rome.

The supporters

  • Offers greated w/enthusiasm by leaders as more likely to recapture Jerusalem w/10,000 more troops, appealed to historial precidence, would allieviate issue of Venetian contract.
  • Could pay off contract and be assured of supplies once Constantinople task was complete.
  • Some believe crusade was a conspiracy by Phillip to help the prince; sinister leadership?
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2. Prince Alexius' failure to keep promises: cause

How did the proposal weaken the crusade?

  • Divided views between leaders/crusaders- unprepared to endure more delays (lost 2,000).
  • Crusading contingent reduced to 3,000 troops by 1203 but leadership remained intact as only Reynald diverted and Simon of Montfort abandoned.
  • Pope's influence on crusade eroded after Zara diversion- he opposed the proposal due to Phillip's involvement, now had little chance of forcing crusaders to continue to Outremer.

Crusaders at Constantinople 

Short-term achievements of the attack 

  • 1203- Isaac II restored to imperial throne, agreed w/leaders to commitments Alexius made and leaders forced Isaac to accept Alexius' coronation; now Alexius IV.
  • Westerner's closest BE ally could carry out bargain; gave crusaders 100,000 marks (50,000 for Venetians and rest to forces signed up to Treaty of Venice) but had to pay Venetians 36,000.
  • Waited at Galata with combined force of 3,000 troops.
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3. Prince Alexius' failure to keep promises: cause

The failure of Prince Alexius and its significance 

Unfulfiled proposals 

  • Managed to pay 100,000 marks out of Constantinople treasury but promised 200,000; couldn't tax rulers in BE as they hadn't all submitted to him.
  • Ordered world-renown relics to be melted to raise money for provisioning crusaders at Gatala.
  • 1203 had to stop payments to crusaders: alienated allies by witholding funds/melting relics.
  • Unification of churches/end of schism unfulfilled despite patriarch's submission to Pope as patriarch didn't change doctrine to match the West or go to Rome to get Pallium.
  • 1203- asked leaders to remain at Constantinople till March 1204 and they had to agree as they didn't have provisions to go to Outremer.
  • In order for Alexius to deliver promises, had to strengthen his positition as emperor.
  • Crusaders joined him on tour of BE- delayed crusade.
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4. Prince Alexius' failure to keep promises: cause

The fall of Alexius IV 

  • 1204- Isaac II and Alexius IV imprisoned so Alexius couldn't fulfil promises, power fell due to:
  • 1- Too closely associated w/crusaders: relied on their help to regain power during tour.
  • 2- Hostility between crusades/Constantinople e.g. crusaders started a fire so 15,000 fleed.
  • 3- Diplomatic relations between crusaders/BE brokedown- crusader embassy thrown out.
  • 4- Rise of Alexius Dukas who was promoted to chamberlain by Alexius IV; became an anti-western figurehead in Constantinople- could overthrow Alexius/be emperor Alexius V.

The effects of Alexius IV's fall

  • 1204 Alexius murdered and Isaac died, crusade reached an impasse because:
  • 1- Crusaders were about to break another deadline.
  • 2- Lack of provisions- Alexius V didn't continue giving crusaders provisions like Alexius IV did.
  • 3- Agression of Alexius V- ambushed Henry of Flander's troops outside Constantinople.
  • 4- Failed negotiations- Alexius wanted crusaders to leave/Dandolo wanted money/provisions.
  • Main body of crusaders wanted to join spring passage to Outremer but leaders lacked provisions so decided to attack/capture Constantinople and take by force supplies.
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5. Prince Alexius' failure to keep promises: cause

The sack of Constantinople and its signifance 

Preparations for the attack

  • Leaders met to prepare pre-attack agreement to ensure unity after attack, terms of March pact:
  • 1- Money: Venetians to take most of booty until debt of 200,000 was settled, rest was split fairly.
  • 2- Leadership: new emperor to replace Aleixus V to be chosen by 12 electors w/less power.
  • 3- Former BE: remaining 3/4 divided into various titles/fiefdoms for Ventians/crusaders.
  • This ensured crusaders/Venetians remained united, helped replenish funds/resources.
  • Helped galvanise a force of 20,000 alongside Venetians and evacuees of Constantinople.
  • BUT: all signatories of pact had to stay in Constantinople for another year= more delay.

The attack and sack of Constantinople

  • Alexius escaped which started a 3 day raid of the city by invaders.
  • Looted money/precious metals and did a city-wide furtum sacrum: relics and treasures stolen.
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6. Prince Alexius' failure to keep promises: cause

Effects of sack of Constantinople 

  • 1- 300,000 marks from treasury split between Venetians/crusaders (settled debt)
  • 2- 10,000 horses to help crusades who lost many during years of foraging.
  • Crusade replenished but theft of city's relics poisoned relations between BE and westerners.
  • Made reuinfication of East and West churchers harder due to scale of furtum sacrum.
  • New patriarch of Constantinople struggled to get clergy to submit to Pope of Rome.

The establishment of Romania 

  • Crusaders had to:
  • 1- Elect new emperor: Baldwin of Flanders/Boniface were chief contenders, Baldwin wins.
  • 2- Divide BE land: led to military conflict between Baldwin and Boniface.
  • 3- Tackle external threats from former rules like Alexius III and Alexius V.
  • Mid 1205; most abandoned plans to go to Outremer, 7,000 westerners went back to EU.
  • Peter declares crusade over; absolved them of vow without Pope's consent in Constatinople.
  • His action was a practical move, couldn't have restarted crusade despite Pope's wishes.
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