How effective was the Govt of Outremer? 1100 - 1186



1100 Baldwin I 

1118 Baldwin II 

1131 Fulk & Queen Melisende

1143 Queen Melisende

1152 Baldwin III

1163 Amalric

1174 Count Raymond III of Tripoli (regent for B IV)

1176 Baldwin IV

1185 R III (regent to Baldwin V)

1186 Guy & Sybil  

1187 Saladin 

1 of 8


  • King Bladwin I of Jerusalem - after Godfrey of Bouillon dies in 1100
  • installed new count of Edessa and prevented Danishmend Turk capture of Antioch

Strong and Effective reign - consolidated territories of Outremer and established a clear system of overlordship in Jerusalem

  • Authority over church: replaced Patriarch of Jerusalem (wanted Bohemond I of Antioch) with his own supporter 
  • Intervention in Kingdom's affairs: Tripoli succession crisis 1109 - active ruler and tackled issues directly 
  • Defense:  defended against turks (1113 - Galilee attacked by Turks and B forced them to retreat)
  • Castles: intensive castle-building programme began with B's reign (Montreal built in 1115)
2 of 8


  • B I dies in 1118-> Eustance of Boulogne still in Europe (had the support of senior nobles in J)
  • Baldwin of Bourcq (Count of Edessa) - key supporters (patriarch of J & Count of Tiberias)
  • was in Jerusalem so he claimed the throne 

REIGN: Able and effective defender 

  • Antioch left without regent after Battle of the Field of Blood - stepped in until 1126 - 6 trips for political and defensive purposes 
  • continued territorial expansion to minimize Muslim threat to J
  • approx 19 military campaigns - some on Damascus


  • Rebellion: B II captured on military campaign 1123 - Nobles try to install Charles of Flanders but he refused 
  • while securing rule - had to replace key positions with supporters - favoritism started rebellions 
  • succession: had only daughters - married Melisande with Fulk of Anjou = Baldwin III - prevented Fulk's dynasty from taking power by appointing all co-rulers 
3 of 8


  • B II dies 21 April 1131 -> Queen Melisande, King Fulk, Baldwin III
  • succession caused conflict between 2 dynasties (Melisande's and Fulk's )
  • F appointed members of own family in key positions and didn't allow M to rule - rebellions 
  • tricky position - forced to give Melisende power 
  • F died 1143 - M continued as Queen 
  • 1145 - B III came of age - M not ready to give throne 
  • 1151 - B asked M to split kingdom but refused 
  • B III besieged J and exiled her back to Nablus = became king 
4 of 8



  • conflict with mother stopped progress in south 
  • secured position and achieved a lot 
  • built castle at Gaza - cut vital road link between Egypt and Ascalon (muslim)
  • 1153 - conquered Ascalon (key port)


  • Crusader states bowed to his primacy: some leaders captured/murdered and the states looked up to BIII to restore stability 
  • Lords forced to submit to him: some began to ignore his judgments and B confiscated their fiefs 
  • Ensured a stable succession: brother Almaric (power in Jaffa and Ascalon)
  • BIII died in 10th Feb 1163
5 of 8

BALDWIN IV "leper king"

  • Amalric died 11 July 1174
  • Left behind a divided govt by factionalism - married twice - Agnes of Courtenay (one faction around her & children) and Maria Comnena (nobles popular with Amalric)
  • B IV crowned at 13yrs on 15 July 1174 - Queen Mother Agnes
  • Regent Raymond III of Tripoli (Cousin) - set up own power base
  • leprosy = can't have children - Sybil had to have a son (Baldwin V)
  • 1176 - B IV took control 
  • S husband died while pregnant - B IV had to find her a new one 
  • R III concerned that new husband would take away his power - put forward someone he could control and started an invasion of J with Bohemond of Antioch
  • B IV prevented this - Sybil married Guy of Lusignan 
  • Aug 1183 - B IV with troops in Galilee to fights Saladin's invasion
  • B IV got ill - Guy as regent but failed to take action as couldn't command the lords - Saladin free to plunder 
  • Open conflict between factions (headed by Agnes) weakened govt and allowed Saladin to advance 
6 of 8


  • Tensions between faction increased 
  • B V crowned king as B IV was planning his final years 
  • B IV unrest with Guy 
  • R III appointed as regent to B V after B IV's death in 1185
  • baby B V dies and another succession crisis starts 


  • Raymond's faction - Isabel and Humphrey as leaders of J OR Agnes' faction - Sybil and Guy 
  • S & G were first but was asked to divorce Guy to become Queen 
  • she did but then appointed Guy as king - nobles deceived and angry 
  • Raymond and faction planned to crown I & H - close to civil war 
  • war prevented by H who paid homage to Guy 


  • R III lost power because of H 
  • another 2 years of infighting that weakened government 
  • Weakness of Govt - divided nobility, inactive govt, cease in hostilities 
7 of 8


  • 1185 - R III made a truce with Saladin - logical as the kingdom was too divided
  • 1187 - raid against Muslim caravan = Guy tried to save the truce but Saladin launches an attack on Kerak and Montreal 
  • 1186 - 87 - R III asked S to help against G (scared G will attack bc RIII didn't pay homage
  • in return, allowed a Muslim force of 7000 pass through Galilee to besiege Acre 
  • this made R a traitor 
  • same month - Sybil & Guy sent an army to encourage R to restore relationship w them 
  • they discovered Saladin's army and attacked - acting against R's advice and lost 
  • Saladin attacked Tiberias (R's town) - situation was desperate 
  • R advised G to take no action but he didn't listen 
  • Saladin won Battle of Hattin 
  • Saladin conquered J  
  • 3rd crusade started soon after 
8 of 8


No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all Crusades resources »