- Created by: mrevv
- Created on: 21-12-19 17:57
- The County of Edessa had local Armenians, the Euphrates river and crops and livestock.
- It was the first crusader state, ruled by Baldwin I then B2.
- Turkish invasion had been a threat since 1127- in 1104, B2 was captured and Tancred became regent of Edessa. He was forced to relinquish his role by B1.
- When King Fulk died, the Franks were preoccupied so the Turks attacked.
- It was captured in 1143, and in 1150 its castles were sold to the Byzantine Emperor by B3.
- Outremer did not have natural boundaries- the Tarsus mountains in the North and Lebanese mountians in the East, and rivers such as the Jordan had gaps and fords.
- Deserts were never used as natural boundaries, so land was often contested.
- Edessa was vulnerable to Mosul and Aleppo.
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- The Principality of Antioch had Christians and Arabs, and the St Symeon port.
- It bordered Byzantium, Edessa and the sea.
- 1099, Bohemond of Taranto became its first ruler.
- He was not initially under Jerusalem's power. The Byzantines, Turks and Franks claimed authority- they accepted the Franks to survive.
- Bohemond I was captured in 1110 and replaced by his infant son Bohemond II.
- Bohemond II died in 1130, and his widow Alice wanted to rule on her own.
- Fulk married Alice's daughter Constance to Raymond of Poitiers.
- Antioch started paying homage to the Byzantines for protection.
- 12th century, Saladin invaded Latakia and Antioch- Richard III negotiated its freedom after the 3rd crusade, and it survived the 12th century.
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- The County of Tripoli had Christians and Arabs and the ports of Tortosa and Tripoli.
- It was known for sugar cane, olives and weaving goods.
- It was the last state, taken by Raymond of Toulouse, who took Tortosa then Tripoli.
- As a vassal of Jerusalem, it had protection if it kept alliegence.
- 1109 succession crisis, BI divided it between William Jordan, count of Cerdagne, and Bertrand, son of Raymond of Toulouse.
- When William died Bertrand took the whole of Tripoli with his son Pons.
- Count Raymond III was imprisoned by the Turks and king Amalric raised 80k bezants to free.
- The Hospitallers and Templars were given castles.It tried being independent but eventually it had to rely on Jerusalem. It was under threat by Asassins and Homs Muslims.
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- The Kingdom of Jerusalem contained Christians, Jews, Arabs and Samaritans.
- It had olives, wheat, fruit, and traded sugar and spices.
- 1100 Christmas day, Baldwin I crowned. Godfrey had been lord protector.
- It comprised of the city, southern Judea, a costal area round Jaffa and Galilee.
- By 1175, 10 famlies controlled 24 lordships, they were strong enough to overthrow the king.
- B1 tried keeping land for the royal demense, and confiscated land from rebels.
- It had churches like the Holy Sepulchre, and the most powerful Christian patriarchate.
- It was the best defended state, with feifs protecting land.
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- Acre and Tyre were the main ports, letting goods and people arrive easily.
- They joined Outremer to trade with the West, Egypt, and Muslim and Christian cities.
- They exchanged spices and sugar for cotton, metal, and food
- Italians, especially from Genoese trading timber, traded from the West.
- Acre, Tyre and Jaffa were close to Damascus and convenient to reach.
- The most famous dyeworks at Tyre were owned by Syrians.
- Muslim sea captains were offered safe conduct by the Kings of Jerusalem.
- Outremer’s largest trading partner was Damascus, who they invaded in the 2nd crusade.
- While some trade helped Eastern relations, most of Outremer’s trade was with the West.
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- Outremer had to trade with the Muslims to make revenue.
- There were mosques at Acre and Tyre, and a converted shared mosque at Acre.
- BIII allowed Abu Ibn Izz-ad Din to trade with Egypt (Alexandria) and Tyre
- They co-operated to raise profit for the local lords and taxes.
- Sugar had a duty of 5 bezants for every 100 bezants traded.
- Shoes brought by Muslims had an extra 10% duty.
- Cardamon had 10 bezants and 5 karoubles for each 100 bezants.
- Exports to non-Christians had an extra 1 karouble duty for each 1 bezant traded.
- Trade created co-operation but not complete peace.
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Settlement in Outremer
- This only happened after the first crusade, since in the 2nd the land was already conquered and crusaders owed loyalty to thier kings, who already had land.
- PIlgrims constantly travelled to Jerusalem.
- The economic state of Europe included famine, floods, taxation, and difficulties with labour service agreements which let peasants farm land for free.
- In 1150, a cobbler from Chalons-sur-Marne left for Outremer to avoid tax.
- PIlgrims were attracted by the unpopulated, fertile land in the East.
- However, the economic risk undertaken by crusade hugely outweighted the benefits.
- There were 200 colonial settlements in Outremer, with land for farming, churches and roads.
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- B3 allowed settlers long term housing leases , free facilities such as mills and olive groves, and a 1/7 tax of crops to Baldwin. Migrants could also fight for Outremer.
- Italian quarters from Genoa, Pisa and Venice are in Antioch and Tyre.
- 1/3 of Tyre was given to Venice. The Genoese had 13 houses in Antioch.
- There were no forced conversions since there were diverse communities.
- Acre contained Pilgrims and merchants from Alexandria, Damascus and Aleppo.
- Tyre and Tripoli had large Muslim populations.
- By attacking the locals, the Franks would starve so they were forced to be accepting.
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