C1.1 fundamental ideas

fundamental ideas in chemistry (:

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  • Created by: Lizzie(:
  • Created on: 05-06-12 16:07

Atom

The smallest unit of any chemical

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Element

Chemical that has only one type of atom

e.g. Na, C, O2, H2

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Compound

Different atoms joined (chemically bonded)

e.g. H2O, NaCl, C2H6

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Mixture

elements and or compounds NOT joined

e.g. air, NaCl solution

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atoms

Protons and neutrons make up the nucleus of an atom.  Protons have a charge of +1 and neutrons have a charge of 0.

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An atom

          particle                 relative mass                  charge

           proton                           1                               +1 

          neutron                          1                                0

          electron                    almost 0                          -1

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Atomic number

= the number of protons

(= the number of electrons in an atom)

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Mass number

= the number of protons + neutrons

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Electron stucture

Electrons are arranged in shells or main energy levels.

They are filled from the inner shell first.  This is the 1st shell and it has the lowest energy level.

Each shell can contain a maximum number of shells..

1st shell = 2 electrons, 2nd shell = 8 electrons, 3rd shell = 8 electrons etc

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Periodic table

This is a table of elements.

It is arranged in:

periods: the rows - which correspond to a shell being fllled

groups: the columns - each group has the same number of electrons on the outer shell

e.g. Li = 2,1

     Na = 2,8,1

       K = 2,8,8,1

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Electronic configuration

The arrangement of electrons can also be written using the number of electrons for each shell.

e.g. Chlorine  28 <-- (number of electrons in each shell)

        Shell:    1st   2nd  3rd

 

The number of electrons that are on the outer shell is the group that it is in, so chlorine would be in group 7 as it has 7 electrons in the outer shell.

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Comments

Beth Young

Protons? Neutrons? Electrons? Its good, but more detail maybe?

Alysha

I agree ^^

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