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  • C1.1 - The Fundamental Ideas in Chemistry
    • Atoms and Elements
      • All substances are made of atoms (very small molecules)
      • Each atom has a small central nucleus made up of protons and neutrons with orbiting electrons around its shells
      • A substance that contains one sort of an atom is called an element
    • The Periodic Table
      • Elements are arranged in the Periodic Table
      • Group 1 metals react with water to produce an alkaline solution and hydrogen
      • Group 0 are called the nobel gases, This is because they do not react as they have a full outer shell and so are stable
    • Atomic Structure
      • Protons, neutrons and electrons have relative electrical charges
      • Protons: +1 Neutrons: 0 Electrons: -1
      • The number of protons is the atomic number (bottom) and the sum of protons and neutrons is the mass number (top)
    • Electronic Configuration and Structure
      • Electrons in an atom occupy the lowest available energy level.
      • For the first 20 elements: The first level can only contain two electrons and the energy levels after this can hold a maximum of eight
      • Electronic configuration tells us how the electrons are arranged around the nucleus


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