Chemistry (Fundamental ideas) - C1.1

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  • Chemistry - C1.1 - Fundamental Ideas
    • Atoms
      • All substances are made up of atoms
      • something made up of only one type of atom is called an element
      • something made up of multiple atoms is called a compound
      • Elements are arranged in the periodic table into periods (across) and groups (down)
        • elements down a group share similar traits
        • Descending a group, atoms get bigger
      • Periodic table
        • Non metals are on the right hand side, metals on the left
        • Elements are represented by Letters, always Starting with a capital, sometimes followed by LOWER case letters e.g. O and Na
        • Elements in the same group have the same number of electrons in the outermost shell - giving them the similar properties
        • Group 1 elements react with water
          • Fizz, metal dissolves
          • Gives hydrogen and metal hydroxide
        • Grp 1 react with O2 to give metal oxide
        • Grp 0 (noble gases) are unreactive due to a complete outermost shell
      • Atoms are made up of a small central nucleus (protons charge +1, neutrons, no charge) and surrounded by orbiting electrons (-1 charge)
      • Atoms have no overall charge (electrons=protons)
      • Atoms of same element haver the same number of protons, atoms of different elements have different number of protons
        • Atomic number is the smaller number usually in the top corner
        • The larger below the symbol is the atomic mass of the atom (neutrons+protons)
      • Electrons occupy the 'shells' or 'levels' surrounding the atom. They always occupy the lowest possible level (a shell must be filled before electrons will be found in a higher one
        • atoms can be drawn in 'dot and cross' diagrams. The first level can only have 2 electrons, subsequent levels can have up to 8
    • Chemical Reactions
      • Chemical equations must be balanced with the same numbers of atoms on each side
      • Mass is never lost in a chemical reaction, can use this to make calculations
      • Compounds with only non metals share electrons through covalent bonds (molecules)
      • Compounds involving a metal, atoms form ions
        • Non-metals form negative ions (gain electrons
        • Metals form positive ions (lose electrons)
        • Can be shown through IONIC equations
          • Similar to chemical equations, except only ions that CHANGE CHARGE are shown
          • 2Na+2H2O-->2NaOH+H2 (Chemical)
          • 2Na + 2H2O --> 2Na+ +2OH- +H2 (Ionic)
      • When elements react, atoms join to form compounds
        • This involves, giving, sharing or taking electrons
      • An ion is an atom that has lost or gained an outermost electron
        • When drawing, may need to add or remove a shell
  • Chemical Reactions
    • Chemical equations must be balanced with the same numbers of atoms on each side
    • Mass is never lost in a chemical reaction, can use this to make calculations
    • Compounds with only non metals share electrons through covalent bonds (molecules)
    • Compounds involving a metal, atoms form ions
      • Non-metals form negative ions (gain electrons
      • Metals form positive ions (lose electrons)
      • Can be shown through IONIC equations
        • Similar to chemical equations, except only ions that CHANGE CHARGE are shown
        • 2Na+2H2O-->2NaOH+H2 (Chemical)
        • 2Na + 2H2O --> 2Na+ +2OH- +H2 (Ionic)
    • When elements react, atoms join to form compounds
      • This involves, giving, sharing or taking electrons
    • An ion is an atom that has lost or gained an outermost electron
      • When drawing, may need to add or remove a shell

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