Fundamental Ideas C1.1

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  • Fundamental Ideas C1.1
    • Atoms, Elements and Compounds
      • All substances are made of atoms
      • Elements are made of only one type of atom
      • Chemical symbols are used to represent atoms
      • Compounds contain more than one element
    • Atomic Structure
      • The nucleus of an atom is made of protons and neutrons
      • Protons have a positive charge (P for positive), electrons a negative charge and neutrons are not charged (Neutral)
      • The atomic number of an element is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus of its atoms
      • The mass number is the sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
    • The arrangement of electrons in atoms
      • The atoms of the unreactive noble gases (Group 0) all have very stable arrangements of electrons
      • All the elements in the same group of the periodic table have the same number of electrons in their highest energy level (Outer Shell)
    • Forming bonds
      • Compounds of metals bonded to non-metals have ionic bonds
      • The formula of an ionic compound shows the simplest ratio of ions
      • Compounds of non-metals have covalent bonds
      • The formula of a molecule shows the number of atoms in the molecule
    • Chemical equations
      • Atoms get re-arranged in chemical reactions
      • The mass of the products is equal to the mass of reactants
      • Symbol equations should always be balanced


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