Working Patterns


Full Time / Part Time

  • Full time
    • 40 hours per week
    • Employee:
      • Company loyalty, committed and hard-working
      • Less motivated and flexibility
    • Employer:
      • More control over time and effort
      • Employees loyal, committed and higher skilled
  • Part time
    • Work 1000hrs or less in a 12 month period
    • Employee:
      • Potential for flexibility
      • More motivated
      • Less loyalty
    • Employer
      • Less cost
      • Employees highly motivated
      • Employees may leave when offerred full-time employment
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Home Working

  • Working from Home
    • Employees
      • Savings on things such as travel, childcare and professional wardrobes
      • Flexibility in time and environment
      • Less distractions and stress
      • Proximity to home and family: better work/life balance
      • Alienated from daily company developments
      • Isolation and removal from supervision
      • Distractions: Need for high self-discipline
      • Bad work/life balance
      • No end to work
    • Employers
      • Improved employee retention and motivation: productivity gains
      • Wider pool of applicants to recruit e.g. disabled
      • Savings on office space and facilities
      • Locate sales staff near clients
      • Difficult to manage performance and maintain team spirit: isolation among home workers
      • Possible deterioration in work quality
      • Increased telecommunication costs
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Job Shares

  • Dividing a single full time job between two people
  • Employees
    • Complementary skills and experience
    • Continuity if a sharer leaves or is absent
    • Option for employees who don't want to work full time
    • Greater freedom/better work/life balance
    • Challenges in communication: difficult or confusing for subordinates
    • May feel inadequately paid
  • Employers
    • Recruit employees who are skilled + experienced who may not be able to work full time
    • Enhance output
    • Continuity if one sharer leaves or is absent
    • Additional administrative and training costs
    • Extra time spent on communication and supervision
    • Scheduling challenges for training and meetings
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Flexible Working

Temporary Contracts

  • For a fixed period 
    • Can be renewed at the end of the contract
  • Easier for staff to adjust number of staff employed without paying redundancy money
  • Often paid more than full-time staff: attractive to some
  • Less job security
    • More difficult to get loans or a mortgage

Self Employment

  • Run their own business and take their income out of the profits
  • Since 1980s more enterprise culture
  • Some firms re-hire redundant staff as freelancers
  • 1980s-90s redundancy money used to set up own businesses (happened again in 2009)
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Flexible Working 2

  • Employee
    • Greater freedom/ better work/life balance
    • Easier travel (avoiding rush-hour)
    • Improved morale, reducing absence and lateness
    • Reduction in overtime and less lost in time
    • Difficult for those who need direction if unsupervised
    • Productivity may decrease
    • Communication and team working may worsen
  • Employer
    • Wider talent pool 
    • Improved morale, reducing absence and lateness
    • Increasing commitment and productivity
    • Perhaps extended opening hours
    • Costly- heating and lighting when premises open longer
    • Not suitable for organisation where continuous cover is needed
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