OCR GCSE Sociology Start, Methodology, Education, Family and Crime & Deviance

start, methodology, education, family & crime and deviance

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  • Created on: 20-04-11 12:49
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Madeha Shamsuddin
Sociology:- Introduction to Sociology
Sociology paper 1: Sociology Basics :Written Paper (Section A: Research Methods) Section B: Socialisation (15/06/2011) (1
hour)
Sociology is about society; Social structures (the family, education, social stratification, etc.). Social systems (culture and identity,
agents of social control, etc.). Social issues (the causes of crime, the impact of unemployment, etc.). The study of how group
memberships shapes us (identity) & how we shape the behaviour of others.
Identity (how we and others see us) ­ REGGEC- Religion, Ethnicity, Gender, Geography, Age, Class
Culture- the whole way of life of a society. Cultural Diversity
Subculture- Is smaller groups within culture; they have types of different behaviour & beliefs, normally youthful.
Norms- The unwritten laws of society that determine acceptable behaviour.
Values- General ideas about what is right & wrong. The correct ways of behaving & what is considered important & worthwhile.
Status- The amount of prestige a person's question in society gives them ­ could be
Ascribed: born with/ given. Achieved: worked for it.
Relativity- specific to situation/social group, not general
Roles/Multiple roles- A part that we play which has expected & acceptable behaviour associated with it.
Role conflict: when demands of a roles clash with another role
Socialisation- This is the process of learning how to behave in way that is appropriate & acceptable to your culture.
Agencies of Socialisation + Social Control: Family, Education, Mass Media, Peer Groups & Religion. Force (Law/Police/Gov)
Primary Socialisation: takes place in early childhood & at home. It offers the basic norms & values of the family & the culture. Can
learn by Parents (modeling), Family, Teachers, Friends, TV, Media, Discipline & Praised = Social Control = Routine = Manipulation-
teaching you how to behave according to gender. Canalisation: when parents play with their children's toys, doing role plays according
to gender.
Secondary Socialisation: this involves external agencies & modifies the primary socialization. It teaches norms for specific
situations & can be interpersonal (teacher & pupil) or impersonal (media to audience). When taught norms outside of home.
Methodology
Sociology paper 3: Applying Sociological Research Techniques (to case study): Written Paper (21/06/2011) (1 hour)
Big Macro Approach
Scientific ­more reliable
­ Government accepts
Structural Approach
Reliable- Methodology
Objective Study- Observe
Surveys ­ questionnaires
Non- Participant Observation
Small Micro Approach
Subjective (personal) Society
Interpretivists
-Interviews -Methodology -Observing (getting involved) -Validity (truth)
PM= Participant Observation
(Overt + Covert)
Primary Method- use your self to investigate e.g. survey, questionnaire
Secondary Method- Already exists e.g. text book, Statistics (Hard: birth & Death recorded + Soft: Crime)
Characteristics of interviewer effects research
Observe body language & speaking tone
Correlation- the two variables change together but the researcher cannot prove exactly what the relationship is.
Hawthorne Effect- makes research findings invalid. Is when people being studied are told or become aware that an experiment is
taking place so behaviour is likely to change.
People's views depend & differ on their age & gender- that's why they ask for it in questionnaires, surveys etc
Feral Children ­ untamed children
Identify 2 reasons why case studies on feral children are not reliable

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Madeha Shamsuddin
Media fabricates stories to entertain and sustain audiences contemporary needs, happens mostly in remote places where there is no
documentation of the area.…read more

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Madeha Shamsuddin
Judgment Sampling: A deliberate choice of a sample - the opposite of random ­ don't really need to know
Convenience Sampling: Uses those who are willing to volunteer ­ don't really need to know
Cluster Sampling: Units in the population can often be found in certain geographic groups or "clusters" (e.g. primary school children in
Derbyshire.…read more

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Madeha Shamsuddin
Subjectivity- when researcher's personal views influence the study
Research population- is the groups(s) of people relevant to the study being completed.
Interviewer Bias- is where the interviewer influences the answer that the respondent gives.
Research population: group(s) of people relevant to study being done
Social Desirability- is where the respondent gives the kind of answer that they think the researcher wants to hear.
Observer Effect- presence of observer affects actions of group being studied- so researcher does not see natural behavior.…read more

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Madeha Shamsuddin
Participant:-
Is where data is collected by interacting with, and therefore experiencing, the phenomenon being studied.
Past Sociologist Examples:
Practical:-
-Large Sample Size (Conner & Dewson 2001) - Positivists prefer representativeness and generalize.
-Low response rate (Hite) = gave 100,000 out received only 4.5% back.
Ethical:-
-Milgram (1974) carried out experiments misled and deceived participants about purpose (experiment- willingness to inflict pain).
Theoretical:-
-Cicourel (1968) lacked validity & in depth.
Participant Observation:-
-Patrick (joined a Glasgow gang).…read more

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Madeha Shamsuddin
Sociology paper 3: Applying Sociological Research Techniques (to case study): Written Paper (21/06/2011) (1 hour)
On sociological research techniques- it replaced course work
1 hour
Pre-released material on Education
Need a highlighter
You need to: identify and describe the methods and techniques used in the investigations, identify hyposis and aims. Explain
how methods and investigation have been used- adv + disadv.
Functionalists believe society like aliving organ, in which institutions and people all have a function to play with society. E.…read more

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Madeha Shamsuddin
There is no correct definition on the family, Sociologists do not agree on a definition, broadly there are two types of definition;
Exclusive definitions ­ These focus on the specific relationships within the family unit i.e. marriage
Inclusive definitions ­ These focus on the functions of the unit e.g. support.
Murdocks Definition of the Family:
"The family is a social group characterized by common residence, economic cooperation and reproduction".…read more

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Madeha Shamsuddin
Single mothers are less likely to work than married mothers and if they do, it is likely to be part time work. The lack of free nursery
care makes it difficult for single mothers to work.
Sociological views:
New Right thinkers see a connection between one-parent families, educational underachievement and delinquency. They argue that
the lack of discipline is because there is a lack of a stable foundation within the family.…read more

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Madeha Shamsuddin
- Working class- flexible- looser arrangement
- Young and Willmott 1950s study in Bethnal Green- working class tend to have extended famz.
Ethnicity/Culture
- Do not stereotype families and individuals by ethinic BUT e.g.
- South Asians (Indian, Paki, Bengi origin) tend to be larger fam then average and tend to live in large households of extended families.
- Afro-Caribbean's tend to compared to whites have families that are led by a lone parent- history of ethnics reflects this.…read more

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Madeha Shamsuddin
A Post-Modern view of the family is that the diversity of family structures are evidence that people feel they have more freedom and
choice, which is a good thing and that no one family type is better than another nor does one particular type suit all people and / or
circumstances.
Power, Inequality and Family Policy
One of the key social changes has been the change in the roles of men and women.…read more

Comments

shohaib712

Amazing resource thank you so much!

You should put it into sociology folder not business.

Does this cover all of OCR spec?

alyan_ahmed

I was reading through this, whilst reading I found that the grammar war extremely poor.

It said 'analyze' the word 'cuz' was used and people was abbreviated into 'peps'

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