AS Level ICT - Topic 6a Uses of ICT in Business

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  • Created by: Dan 8888
  • Created on: 19-05-15 15:13



- CAD is using computer systems in engineering, architecture, kitchen design etc. to support the design of products, buildings or the placement of objects

 - CAM is using computers to control the manufacturing process via controlling manufacturing equipment like lathes and drills -> Lots of CAM systems have the ability to take the design produced using CAD and feed it into a CAM system which makes the product / component

Features of CAD Packages:

- Zoom (ability to zoom in or out)

 - 2D + 3D - Change from 2D drawings -> 3D surface models

 - Layering -> Adds more detail to the drawing

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CAD and CAM Continued...

Advantages of Using CAD:

- Designs can easily be altered

 - 3D is available

 - Scaling

 - Libraries of artwork

Features of CAM Packages:

- Uses a computer

 - Takes input from CAD packages and uses the information to create instructions for machinery

 - Products are made automatically

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CAD and CAM Continued...

Advantages of Using CAM:

- Cheaper manufacture

 - Faster time from design to manufacture

 - Better quality

Examples of CAD and CAM:

- Producing kitchen or bathroom designs for customers (CAD)

 - Used by architects for designing buildings (CAD)

 - Used to produce maps and plans (CAD)

 - Manufacture components used in car engines and gearboxes (CAM)

 - Manufacture double glazed windows and conservatories (CAM)

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CAD and CAM Continued...

Hardware Requirements for CAD and CAM

 - INPUT DEVICES - Keyboard and mouse / space mouse

 - PROCESSING - Speed of processor - CAD software needs to perform many complex calculations when scaling, transforming images or producing 3D models -> Speed of processor is main influence on how fast CAD system appears -> Dual processors are used    -> CAD needs a lot of processing power - Memory - Used to hold programs + data which may need to be accessed immediately by the processor -> There should be big quantities of RAM and there should be space to add more RAM

 - GRAPHICS CARD - CAD puts a big amount of pressure on graphics cards -> 3D capable

 - OUTPUT DEVICES - Screen - Needs to be as large as possible, flicker free with stable picture and non-reflecting                                   - Printers / plotters - Detailed plans need to be printed on larger sheets of paper ->Drum plotters                                  - Machinery - Output from CAM package is instructions to control devices e.g. lathes, drills, etc.

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CAD and CAM Continued...

CAD and CAM Software


- Allows visualisation of 3D objects from any viewpoint

 - Explore different arrangements of 3D parts

 - Experiment with the colour and texture of parts and look at them using different views

 - Series of shapes

 - Allows designer to generate, design and model alternative ideas


 - Allows you to take your 2D designs and change them into 3D ones

 - Can add textures and tet on curved surfaces and once model has been created it can be exported into a CNC machine which has lathes, laser cutters and roouters etc.

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CAD and CAM Continued...


 - This is for graphic design and design of textiles

 - Allows users to create initial sketches of garments and other textile products

 - There is a library of objects

 - Background images can be selected so the garments designed can be showcased in the best way

 - Users can select from a range of colours and textures of fabrics for their design e.g. stripes and spots (This is done via using another piece of software from the same company)

 - Design libraries can be set up so you can alter things rather than starting from scratch

 - Powerful simulation feature enables you to draper the designed garment onto a drawn design such as a figurine

 - You can take a photo a person and create a model of them wearing the garment

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Computer - based Shopping Systems

Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT)

 - Payment for goods where the payment is made from one account to another

 - Include credit and debit cards and payments made using an intermediary e.g. PayPal

Payments Made Using On-line Banking

Advantages - Faster receipt of goods or services, quicker to enter details rather than send a cheque in the post, cash flow is improved and there is no wasted time dealing with cheques which bounce

Disadvantages - Impulse purchases, spending too much on credit cards and not everybody has a computer or Internet access -> Also stolen credit cards may be used to pay for products or services, it is expensive to set up a payment system and there need to be procedures in place to ensure security

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Computer - based Shopping Systems Continued...

Performing Stock Control by Linking to the POS Terminal

- Bar-coding allows goods to be identified as they pass through the checkouts so they can be reducted from stock 

- This allows the sales-based ordering system which automatically re-orders goods from the warehouse using the sales-based information from the checkouts to be formed e.g. 200 cans of baked beans sold in a day 200 would be re-ordered to the store by the next day

On-line Shopping E-commerce 

- Means all activities required for successful running of a business (commerce)                                                               - If activities are done via electronic systems, this is e-commerce                                                                                        - E-commerce involves selling of products, the selling of services and technologies e.g. on-line marketing and EFT

 - Uses latest communication and associated technology like Internet  and mobile phones

Main parts of an e-commerce system -> catalogue of products, a shopping cart/basket, a checkout and payment

Advantages - Always accessible, low start-up and running costs, search facilities etc.

Disadvantages - Unemployment, lack of interaction with people, lack of exercise etc.

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Computer - based Shopping Systems Continued...

Electronic Point of Sale (EPOS)

POS Terminals 

- Placed in stores where customers pay for goods

 - Input devices used with these include touch screen displays, keyboards, magnetic strip readers and bar code readers

Bar Code Recognition

- Uses a series of light and dark bars of different widths to input a code

 - The system can see which country the product has come from, the manufacturer of it, the name of it, the price and other information about it

 - Bar code recognition can be used to record goods in supermarkets, used for warehouse stock control systems, parcel tracking, linking books to borrowers in libraries and luggage labelling at airports

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Computer - based Shopping Systems Continued...

Advantages of bar code input - It is faster, more accurate and there are low printing costs

Disadvantages of bar code input - Can only be used for input of numbers and it's expensive

Other Methods of Data Entry

Hand-held input devices - Portable devices which are sometimes utilised for stock-taking in stores

Magnetic strip readers - Magnetic strips can be seen on credit, debit and loyalty cards and there by using them there are fewer errors, added security and they're quick

Chip and PIN reader - Replaced magnetic strip readers for reading of credit or debit card details -> You have to enter a four digit Personal Identification Number (PIN)

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Computer - based Shopping Systems Continued...

Automatic Stock Control

Aims of an automatic stock control system are to maintain adequate stock just to meet customer demand, to re-oder goods automatically, to monitor and adjust stock levels, to create stock valuations, to provide management with up-to-date and accurate stock information

Just in Time Stock Control Systems

- Goods are delivered to the stores as quick as they are being sold

 - Cut stocks of products in each store by 1/5 and this will free up staff

 - Will allow the store to respond to changing demand throughout the day automatically

 - System will make sure that products don't run out which are vital to the business like ice cream on a hot day

Advantages - Smaller stores can be used, stores are able to react to changing demand through the day, easier to cope with several small deliveries and makes sure that they don't run out of fast-selling items

Disdvantages - Expensive, more admin staff required and true stock may vary due to theft and damages

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Computer - based Shopping Systems Continued...


- Database of all the goods holds the prices

 - The bar code on the goods links the item to the correctrecord in the database

 - Once the price has been changed, the bar code then links to the new price

 - Then the store needs to print out a new shelf label

 - This process enables stores to pass price inreases from their suppliers onto their customers which increases the profitability of the store


- Stores have moved away from making use of keyboards for data entry and moved towards laser scanners and touch screens

 - This should eradicate of health problems such as eyes strain, back ache, RSI and stress

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Computer - based Shopping Systems Continued...

Loyalty Cards

- The majority of supermarkets and stores use these to try and encourage customers to shop regularly at their store

 - Customer fills in an application form, then they are given a card which contains a magnetic strip -> Each time they take the card with them and the loyalty card links the customers to their buys -> The card then adds points onto the card -> Special offer vouchers are sent

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