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Topic 1 - What is an ICT System?
Input, Process, Storage, Output,
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An example of an ICT System
Payroll System, input the name of the employee and hours worked, it is then processed and works out the total pay (hourly rate x hours worked) the final output is a printed payslip and backs transfer.
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6 Components
People, Procedures, Data, Information, Software and Hardware.
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Topic 2 - Data
Data is raw facts and figures.
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Direct and Indirect Data
Direct data is collecting it for a specific purpose. Indirect data is when you've collected it but not for that specific purpose, but suits what your using it for.
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GIGO
Garbage in, garbage oout. This means if you put in poor data then you will get poor information out.
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Encoding and Coding
Encoding data turns data into a machine understandable format. For example picutres into bitmapped (bmp). Coding data uis coded so that it reduces in size, for example m=male and f=female.
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Information
Data that has been processed into a form that is meaningful and useful.
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Factors that affect the quality of Information
Appropriate, Clear, Timely, Concise, Up-to-date and Correct
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Topic 3 - People and ICT Systems
Experience, Physical Characteristics, Environment of Use, Task to be undertaken, Age.
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Interfaces - Command Line Interface
Expert user required, have to remember commands, an example is MSDOS.
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Interfaces - Menu Driven Interface
Use menus to navigate your way around, easy to operate , can be slow, and example is mobile phones and ipods.
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Interfaces - Graphical User Interface
Can point and click icons, easy to use, big file so takes up lots of memory, an example is windows.
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Interfaces - Natural language Interface
comands are in spoken language or sentences, fast way to operate a computer, but have to use the correct natural language, an example is google.
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Working In IT
Computer programmer, porject manager, database administrator, network administrator, website administrator.
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Qualities of an IT professional
Good written communication, good oral communication, good listening skills, technical competence, good questioning skills.
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What makes an effective ICT Team
Good, clear and consistent leadership, good communication sklls, adequate planning and scheduling of tasks, appropriate balance of skills and area of expertise.
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Topic 4 - Methods of Communiction
Fax, telephone, EDI, Voiceover, Mobile Phones.
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Types of Networks
PAN (personal area network) LAN (local area network) MAN (metropolitan area network) and WAN (wide area network)
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Advantages of Networks
Can share devices e.g. printers, can hold data centerally on a server, can share software, can communicate over the network, its easy to back up because its centrally stored and is easy to share and access files.
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Disadvantages of networks
If the central server goes down then the network goes down, viruses can spread easily, expensive to set up and mantain a network and as the network increases the performance of the network can degrade.
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Communications Media
Twisted pair (copper wire, used in much of the telephone network), Coaxial Cable (high quality, well insulated cable, transmits data at fast rate), Fibre optic (uses light pulses, fast transfer of data), Microwave, satelite (over long distances)
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World Wide Web
Is only part of the internet. The web is a collection of web pages stored on computers, and are joined together by hyperlinks. To access web pages you need an internet browser.
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The Internet
Is the network of computers connected together.
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Intranet
is a private network used within organisations and is used to share information. Most people using this willl be given a username and password so they can gain access.
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Extranet
Is part of an intranet that can be accessed from outside the organisations. For example parents can access the VTLE to look at their children's data e.g.attendance
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Topic 5 - Safety and security of data in ICT systems - Threat to ICT systems
Paedophiles, Viruses, Hackers, Identity Theft, Blackmailing and Stalking
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Internal Threats to an ICT system (organisation)
Hardware Failure, faulty procedures, poorly trained staff, use of laptops, dishonest employees.
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Measures to protect ICT systems
Physical restrictions(e.g.swipe cards), Username and passwords, back up information, train staff (code of conduct), anti virus software, firewall, uniterrupted power supply, levels of access, legislations.
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Topic 6 - Backup and recovery (what do you need to consider when backing up?)
What to back up? How often? What medium to use? Where to store the backups? Who will carry out the back up and recovery? What recovery procedures will be put in place? How long should you keep backups for?
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Topic 7 - What can ICT provide?
Fast, repetitive processing – quicker so saves time and therefore saves money for an organisation.
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Topic 7 - What can ICT provide?
Vass Storage capability – saves space and you can store vast amounts of data, the more data a company has the better it is for them.
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Topic 7 - What can ICT provide?
The facility to search and combine data – you can transfer data, to other software, and therefore have combined data, for example if you then put this data into a letter.
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Topic 7 - What can ICT provide?
Improved presentation of information – looks more professional, this will help lead to more business so therefore more profit.
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Topic 7 - What can ICT provide?
Improved security – can have a password on a computer, can back up the information. Encrypt data so if someone does access it, its still encrypted.
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Limitations of ICT
Garbage in, garbage out , you have to have the right hardware to run the computer, there may be errors or bugs in the software, doesnt have human emotion, computers can't adapt - they only do what they have been programmed to do.
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Types Of Processing
Batch Processing – this is not time dependent, doesn’t have to be done at any particular moment. This is used for large volumes of data over a period of time. Examples include bank statements, utility bill, monthly pay roll.
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Types of Processing
Interactive processing – this allows the user to communicate with the computer. This requires the user reacting to the output of the system and then entering more data. Examples include cash machines, instant messaging.
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Types of Processing
Transaction processing – this deals with ecommerce systems. Data is entered and then processed immediately, this helps prevent double bookings. Examples include cinema booking system, booking a flight, buying something online, booking a hotel room.
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Types of Processing
Real time processing – data is processed almost instantaneously and all the time, e.g. air traffic control, chemical plants and nuclear power plants. Constantly monitored all way along.
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Topic 8 - Factors affecting the user of ICT
Cultural factors – these refer to shared values, beliefs and the ways of behaving of an identifiable group of people. In some cultures face to face contact is very important.
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Topic 8 - Factors affecting the user of ICT
Economic Factors - the cost of IT equipment and services have steadily fallen meaning that the majority of homes in the UK now have access to the internet. This has increased the amount of ecommerce business available.
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Topic 8 - Factors affecting the user of ICT
Environmental Influences - a desire to protect the environment has lead to a drive to produce cleaner and more efficient and equipment. For example video conferencing has allowed international companies to reduce the amount of air travel needed.
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Topic 8 - Factors affecting the user of ICT
Ethical factors – ethical factors are things to do with right and wrong behaviour. One of the biggest issues in ICT is privacy for example number plate monitoring, finger print technology (Heathrow airport),
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Topic 8 - Factors affecting the user of ICT
there are many legal influences of the way in which ICT systems are used, these include health and safety legislation,Data protection act (making sure you are collecting, storing and processing data correctly)
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Topic 8 - Factors affecting the user of ICT
Social factors – this mainly deals with how we communicate and the services available. Examples include Skype, blogs, email, face time. Better connection speeds and computers to process data means there is more access to TV, films, music and games.
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Topic 9 - The consequences of the use of ICT
Teleworking - not going out so have less social skills. No boundaries between work and social time. Online shopping means we dont go into shops. Easy to commit frauds. ICT has improved our quality of life - communication is easier.
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Topic 9 - The consequences of the use of ICT
How it affects Society – the expansion of ICT has resulted in the loss of jobs, ICT can do it quicker so less employees are needed to do the same job. Taking traditional jobs away but creating new jobs.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Payroll System, input the name of the employee and hours worked, it is then processed and works out the total pay (hourly rate x hours worked) the final output is a printed payslip and backs transfer.

Back

An example of an ICT System

Card 3

Front

People, Procedures, Data, Information, Software and Hardware.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Data is raw facts and figures.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Direct data is collecting it for a specific purpose. Indirect data is when you've collected it but not for that specific purpose, but suits what your using it for.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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