AS Level Geography - Rebranding (With F+R)

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  • Created on: 24-03-15 11:37

Introduction to Rebranding Places

Rebrading Aims to Improve a Place and its Image

 - Usually involves REGENERATION - IMPROVEMENTS to an area

 - RE-IMAGING - MARKETING to improve IMAGE and REPUTATION

 - Aimed at INTERNAL users, like resident and employees, and EXTERNAL customers like visitors

 - Can occur on all scales

 - Aims to improve QUALITY OF LIFE for RESIDENTS and to ATTRACT NEW RESIDENTS, TOURISTS and BUSINESSES

 - VIRTUOUS CYCLE

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Introduction to Rebranding Places Continued...

Rebranding is Needed when a Place is in Decline

Places which require rebranding go into three groups:

 Urban Areas

 - Lots of industrial towns have lost FACTORIES leading to DECREASE in manufacturing JOBS

 - HIGH UNEMPLOYMENT which creates ECONOMIC PROBLEMS because people have to live on LOW INCOME/INCOME SUPPORT

 - SPIRAL OF DECLINE as people move out looking for jobs causing SERVICES TO CLOSE

 - Rebranding is required to ENCOURAGE NEW INVESTMENT and this will ATTRACT PEOPLE BACK

Rural Areas

- DECLINE OF AGRICULTURE causes REDUCED EMPLOYMENT and ECONOMIC ISSUES

 - AGEING POPULATION due to lack of JOB OPPORTUNITIES causing OUT-MIGRATION of YOUNG PEOPLE

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Introduction to Rebranding Places Continued...

 - SERVICES CLOSE due to people MOVING AWAY for WORK which causes a SPIRAL OF DECLINE

 - REBRANDING would increase EMPLOYMENT and SERVICES

Coastal Resorts

- CHEAP FLIGHTS cause FEWER BRITISH TOURISTS to visit UK coastal resortsLOSING MONEY and causing BUSINESSES TO CLOSE

 - DECLINE OF FISHING INDUSTRY means FEWER JOBS and even more ECONOMIC ISSUES

 - OUT-MIGRATION of YOUNG PEOPLE and a SPIRAL OF DECLINE

 - REBRANDING encourages new INVESTMENT, creating JOBS AND BRINGING MONEY

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Introduction to Rebranding Places Continued...

You Need to be Able to Investigate the Need for Rebranding

Fieldwork:

- SIMPLE QUESTIONNAIRE to ask whether there is a need for rebranding and WHY

 - ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY SURVEY scoring different areas under different categories like GREENERY and LITTER

Research:

- INTERNET IMAGE SEARCH to find out what pictures are TYPICAL for a particular place

 - CENSUS DATA for information on UNEMPLOYMENT

 - GIS to overlay CENSUS DATA on DEPRIVATION with EQS

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Introduction to Rebranding Places Continued...

Rebranding can use many Different Strategies

Projects can focus on:

- ATTRACTING TOURISTS with LEISURE,SPORTS FACILITIES, CULTURE and ARTS

 - IMPROVING CONDITIONS FOR RESIDENTS with BETTER HOUSING or GOOD FEATURES

 - ATTRACTING INVESTMENT with new SHOPS, COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS and WATERFRONT DEVELOPMENTS

Things that help to regenerate a place are developing new HOUSING, SHOPS, COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS, ART AND CULTURAL CENTRES, TECHNOLOGY AND LEISURE and SPORTS FACILITIES

Things that help to re-image a place are promoting NATIONAL PARKS, RURAL AND HISTORICAL HERITAGE, FESTIVALS, FOOD TOWNS, LINKS WITH THE MEDIA, LEISURE AND SPORTS and ART AND CULTURE

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Introduction to Rebranding Places Continued...

Rebranding can Involve Flagship Projects

Definition of a Flagship Project - Large scale, expensive projects designed to make a radical change to a place's image and generate media interest and they are 'top-down' initatives e.g. Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain.

 - DECLINE IN INDUSTRY in Bilbao in 1970s and 80s caused HIGH UNEMPLOYMENT and SOCIAL PROBLEMS

 - Guggenheim Museum in 1997 opened as a FLAGSHIP PROJECT to try to catalyse REGENERATION in the area

 - It attracts 1 MILLION VISITORS and approximately an extra of 150-200 MILLION EUROS per year

 - FURTHER REGENERATION includes NEW TRAM AND BUS LINES, CULTURAL CENTRES and IMPROVED BUILDINGS AND SERVICES

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Introduction to Rebranding Places Continued...

Or Rebranding can Involve Community Projects

Definition of a Community Project - Usually are smaller than flagship projects and they're 'bottom-up' initiatives e.g. rebranding of Ludlow

- Ludlow is a MARKET TOWN in Shropshire

 - Began to be rebranded as the 'SLOW FOOD TOWN' in 1995 when some people had an idea to hold a food festival

 - More than double the population turn up for one weekend each September for the food festival

 - TOP-CLASS RESTAURANTS and INDEPENDENT SHOPS which sell LOCAL PRODUCE attract many visitors

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Urban Rebranding Strategies

Urban Rebranding Involves many Different Players

Lots of different players are required to rebrand an urban area:

- LOCAL GOVERNMENT'S role is to give FUNDING and PLANNING PERMISSION to improve areas for social and economic benefits, to increase income from taxes, to gain votes

 - NATIONAL GOVERNMENT'S role is to give FUNDING for the same reasons as the local government

 - UCR'S work with the GOVERNMENT, provide PRIVATE INVESTMENT and decide PRIORITIES of rebranding because it is their job to SUPPORT REGENERATION AND REBRANDING

 - PRIVATE COMPANIES' role is to give PROJECT FUNDING and to MOVE INTO REBRANDED AREAS for PUBLICITY AND ASSOCIATION WITH VIBRANT MODERN PROJECTS (PF) and to make PROFIT (MIRA)

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Urban Rebranding Strategies Continued...

Urban Rebranding can Involve Regeneration

Building Improvements focus on 4 main Areas:

1) RESIDENTIAL - Improves EXISTING HOUSING or builds NEW ESTATES

2) SHOPPING - Constructing NEW SHOPPING CENTRES / IMPROVING EXISTING ONES

3) COMMERCIAL - NEW BUSINESS BUILDINGS

4) WATERFRONT DEVELOPMENTS - Regenerating areas which used to be INDUSTRIAL like DOCKS via HOUSING, SHOPS and COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

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Urban Rebranding Strategies Continued...

Urban Rebranding can Involve Promoting an Existing Image

- Cities promote themselves by REINFORCING a POSITIVE ASPECT of their IDENTITY

 - VIRTUOUS CYCLE is created (persuaded to visit, more investment and more visitors etc.)

 - Can be RISKY because developers can be ACUSED OF 'SPIN' if they REMARKET WITHOUT IMPROVEMENTS

... Or Marketing a new Image

- From time to time promoting a city's identity involves CHANGING EXISTING PERCEPTIONS OF THE PLACE

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Urban Rebranding Strategies Continued...

Urban Rebranding can use Sport as a Catalyst for Change

- It speeds up urban rebranding via generating PUBLICITY

 - Hosting a MAJOR SPORTING EVENT has a big impact on the area

 - The Chinese Government wanted to pay over $40 billion on hosting the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games due to the GLOBAL PUBLICITY THEY WOULD RECEIVE

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Urban Rebranding Strategies Continued...

Urban Rebranding can have Disadvantages

Unrebranded areas can become isolated due to rebranding elsewhere:

- Manchester has been rebranded as a 'happening place'

 - Improved former RUN-DOWN SUBURBS and DERELICT INDUSTRIAL AREAS

 - However areas which HAVEN'T been rebranded yet are now the centre of CRIME and POVERTY e.g. Moss Side

This gap has caused:

- DECLINE IN LOCAL SHOPS in unregenerated areas

 - FEAR OF CRIME in unregenerated areas

 - REDUCTION in VOLUNTEER WORK, SOCIAL INTERACTION and LOCAL CLUBS and SOCIETIES

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Rural Rebranding Strategies

Involves many Different Players

- Players are SAME as those for urban areas

 - However LESS MONEY IS AVAILABLE (not as many people living there leading to less interest from 'big business')

 - PLANNING PERMISSION CAN BE HARD TO OBTAIN (especially in National Parks (preservation))

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Rural Rebranding Strategies Continued...

Technology and the Media can help with Rural Regeneration

The Internet:

- Working from home due to Internet

 - HIGH-SPEED BROADBAND CONNECTIONS more focused on densely populated areas

Community Radio:

- REACHES OUT to RURAL COMMUNITIES by catering their NEEDS

 - HELPS PEOPLE FEEL PART OF THEIR COMMUNITY e.g. South Africa

 - Makes residents feel MORE POSITIVE about their area which provides a BETTER IMAGE

 - Stations also ADVERTISE GOOD POINTS and SUPPORT LOCAL BUSINESS

Films:

- Good LOCATIONS OF FILMING

 - Brings BUSINESS and creates INTEREST and the area can be PROMOTED as the FILM LOCATION attracting more people

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Rural Rebranding Strategies Continued...

Rural Rebranding can Involve Re-Imaging

1) Promoting Links with the Media:

- If a successful film or TV series is set in a rural area, it can attract more visitors

 - If TV series potrays an IMAGE this can be utilised to assisst in rebranding it

 - e.g. BALAMORY is filmed in TOBERMORY on the Isle of Mull in Scotland and since the programme launched (2003), 160,000 extra visitors per annum

 - Lots of visitors are FAMILIES with TODDLERS so attractions suited to them have been developed

 - TV series has contributed approximately £5m PER ANNUM to the tourist economy

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Rural Rebranding Strategies Continued...

Rural Rebranding can Involve Re-Imaging Continued...

2) Promoting Heritage and the Arts:

- ART - ANGEL OF THE NORTH has regenerated the site of a DISUSED mine and has assisted in attracting VISITORS AND INVESTORS

 - RURAL HERITAGE - Production of WHISKY in SCOTLAND (people spend £ on acommmodation and leisure activities)

 - CULTURAL HERITAGE - LAKE DISTRICT ('Wordsworth Country') because of WW

 - HISTORICAL HERITAGE - WORLD HERITAGE SITE branded 'HADRIAN'S WALL COUNTRY' due to the fact that ROMAN WALL was built by EMPEROR HADRIAN

3) Giving an Area National Park Status:

- NEW FOREST became newest National Park in 2005

 - Objective is to attract MORE VISITORS and to PROTECT it from OVERDEVELOPMENT

 - Hopefully this will cause a VIRTUOUS CYCLE to occur

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Rural Rebranding Strategies Continued...

Integrated Projects are Good for Rural Rebranding

They include more than one rebranding strategy and here are some integrated projects:

- Putting together SOCIAL, ECONOMIC and ENVIRONMENTAL strategies to try and resolve everyone of these issues together

 - PUBLIC SECTOR ACTIVITY and PRIVATE SECTOR BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT

 - DIFFERENT BUSINESS SECTORS working together

Integrating projects causes Diversification:

- DECLINE of AGRICULTURE means rural areas have to find other ways to generate income from the POST-PRODUCTION COUNTRYSIDE which means DIVERSIFICATION

 - Lots of farms have DIVERSIFIED to make money in different ways like attracting visitors with FARM SHOPS

 - DIVERSIFICATION also creates NEW JOBS and this ENCOURAGES YOUNG PEOPLE to STAY

 - Lobbs Farm is an example of this and it's a small farm in Cornwall which has BRANCHED OUT and it now has a FARM, SHOP and EDUCATIONAL VISITORS' CENTRE (3 years of opening made over £6k in additional sales

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Evaluating Rebranding Strategies

The Impact Rebranding will have in the Future has to be Considered

- Needs to SUSTAINABLE to be SUCCESSFUL

 - Project should involve MORE THAN ONE STRATEGY

 - Also important to be SELF-SUFFIICIENT which means creating a VIRTUOUS CYCLE

Sustainable Rebranding can be Achieved in Several ways

1) Ivolve Local People in the Planning:

 - Locals more likely to suppor the scheme if they're allowed to make SUGGESTIONS and DECISIONS

 - SURVEYS can find out what locals want

2) Improve Infrastructure:

 - Improving things like PUBLIC TRANSPORT NETWORK can attract MORE VISITORS AND RESIDENTS to an area which can IMPROVE area's IMAGE + bring in more INVESTMENT which helps a virtuous cycle to come into place

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Evaluating Rebranding Strategies Continued...

3) Build Legacy Facilities:

- Facilities are facilities which can KEEP being used once FIRST STAGES of rebranding COME TO AN END

 - Important for a rebranding strategy to leave a LEGACY if it is going to have a LONG-TERM IMPACT

 - Legacy facilities usually set their sights on SOCIAL IMPROVEMENT, such as EDUCATION + REDUCING CRIME

4) Include Conservation Measures:

- Important consider ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT -> Too much WASTE = Not SUSTAINABLE

 - Showing care/concern for something like ENERGY EFICIENCY makes the scheme more POPULAR which means that it's more likely to receive PUBLIC SUPPORT

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Evaluating Rebranding Strategies Continued...

Evaluating Involves Looking at an Area Before and After Rebranding

- Need to compare what the area is like now to what it was like before the rebranding

 - Rebranding processes should therefore have a detailed assessment (measuring social, economic and environmental state of the are before the rebranding begins)

 - Later evaluations will then measure any changes by comparing the data and the impact on different groups

 - Comparing is a good way of measuring the success however it cannot be completely reliable

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Case Studies for Rebranding

The Big Sheep

 - It has tried to create a happy and family friendly environment

 - Used to be a big farm but rebranded and has now become a big tourist attraction in Devon

 - It has helped to create many secure jobs for the local people

 - Tourists have created lots of money

Guggenheim Museum

- 3.5 million visitors and it contributes £1.5 billion

 - City went into decline during the 90s due to the decline of its heavy industry and the port

 - US $100 million project fund was covered by the Basque government

 - Bilbao reimaged itself by accepting an offer by the Guggenheim Foundation to build an art museum in the drelict port area of the city

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Case Studies for Rebranding Continued...

Barcelona Olympics

 - Happened during 1992 and it is regarded as one of the most successful Olympics ever

 - The organisation of the Olympics allowed a change of scale of urban generation in Barcelona

 - Change at Parc de Mar, Barcelona into an affluent and privileged community has received  criticism of being 'unnecessary gentrification'

 - Olympics were part of urban renewal which started in the middle of the 70s

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Case Studies for Rebranding Continued...

The Role of Technology - Cornwall (Rural Rebranding Strategies)

- Rural economy is struggling due to the collapse in farm prices - 'Brain drain' of yonger people out of the county (not too much entertainment)

 - 'Cornwall Actnow' is a not for profit partnership promoting business growht through broadband and ICT (kept roughly 3850 jobs safe and has increased the amount of yearly GDP by €130 million+)

 - First public broadband partnership to be set up in GB

 - Set up to promote ICT and broadband in many organisations

 - Helped 9000 businesses make most of the broadband and has increased employment

 - Affects businesses and employees in the county

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Case Studies for Rebranding Continued...

Flix in the Stix - Shropshire + Herefordshire (Rural Rebranding Strategies)

 - Arts Alive set up as a Charitable Trust (1999) and established through a merger between 2 touring schemes

 - Organises about 1000 events a year

 - Aims to bring events to people within easy travelling distances and to give them great talent at their local venues

 - Affects people who can't travel very far e.g. elderly

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Rebranding Case Studies Continued...

The Eden Project

- Cornwall's economy used to rely on FARMING, FISHING, MINING and QUARRYING but these industries have been in decline since the 1970s and this has DAMAGED THE ECONOMY AND LANDSCAPE which has forced people to LEAVE

 - Relies on TOURISM however most of the tourist industry jobs are SEASONAL and LOW-PAID -> Cornwall has the lowest weekly wages in Britain which has caused OUT-MIGRATION of YOUNG PEOPLE

 - Low wages causes YOUNG PEOPLE TO LEAVE due to the fact that they can't afford PROPERTY -> House prices have INCREASED due to HOLIDAY HOMES-> RURAL AREAS UNDERPOPULATED for majority of year -> SMALL BUSINESSES CLOSE due to LACK OF TRADE-> ISOLATION causes more people to LEAVE -> SPIRAL OF DECLINE

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Rebranding Case Studies Continued...

Eden Project Continued...

 - Eden Project opened in 2001 and it's an example of RURAL DIVERSIFICATION + REBRANDING

 - Changed RURAL LANDSCAPE + aims to REGENERATE AREA THROUGH ECOTOURISM

 - There is a TROPICAL ZONE, MEDITERRANEAN ZONE and OUTDOOR TEMPERATE ZONE    -> Each contain PLANTS + focus on SUSTAINABLE FARMING

The Project has:

1 - Changed the image of this part of Cornwall to a YEAR-ROUND destination for ECOTOURISTS

2 - Attracted over 1 MILLION EXTRA VISITORS per year

3 - Developed SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH and EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

4 - BOOSTED BY LOCAL FARMING + FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRIES via LOCAL SUPPLIERS -> INTEGRATED AREA PLAN (IAP)

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Rebranding Case Studies Continued...

The Eden Project Continued...

Positive Effects:

- Visitor survey in South Cornwall showed 36% of people visited the area mainly because of the Eden Project

 - It buys over £7m of LOCAL FOOD PRODUCE annually

 - Generated approximately £150m annually in EXTRA REVENUE to LOCAL BUSINESSES

 - CREATED OVER 500 JOBS and approximately 2500 JOBS have been made due to tthe effects of the VIRTUOUS CYCLE

 - LED TO £75m FACELIFT project for ST AUSTELL TOWN CENTRE

 - LOCAL BUSINESS SURVEY showed that 22% of responses mentioned about POSITIVE IMPACT of the area's IMPROVED IMAGE as a RESULT of EDEN PROJECT

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Rebranding Case Studies Continued...

The Eden Project Continued...

Negative Effects:

- EXTRA VISITORS have produced TRAFFIC PROBLEMS especially in the summer which LOWERS QUALITY OF VISITOR EXPERIENCE and REDUCES chance of people VISITING AGAIN

 - EXTRA CARS create extra GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS which is a massive drawback on the project's FOCUS ON ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY -> However the EP and Cornwall County Council have REDUCED the ENTRY PRICE for walkers and cyclists, cycle routes from local towns and the EDEN BRANCH LINE bus-rail link.

 - It keeps NEEDING MORE PUBLIC MONEY-> It has needed £150m in donations from the MILLENNIUM LOTTERY FUND, the SOUTH WEST ENGLAND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AGENCY (RDA), the EU and CORNWALL COUNTY COUNCIL

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Rebranding Case Studies Continued...

Leicester - Rebranding for a Sustainable Future

- UK's first Environment City in 1990

 - Received a European Sustainability Award in 1996

 - Focuses on improving the quality of life for the citizens

 - Responsibility not to cause environmental harm to other parts of the world

 - Example of a top down approach to sustainability

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Case Studies for Rebranding Continued...

Curitiba - Rebranding for a Sustainable Future

- Has a reputation for good recycling and transport developments

 - Sustainability projects are cost effective, people centered, fast, simple, home grown and based on local initiatives and skills

 - Curitiba is a model of voluntary sustainability

 - For transport it has a 3 traffic road system (1 in, 1 out and bus lane), a pedestrianised city centre, a glass boarding tube and triple the amount of buses to carry more people

 - For recycling it offers people in slums food in exchange for their waste, residents are trained and learn new skills from building homes and residents would be moved to a place with water, electricity etc. (People in slums)

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