geography

  • Created by: ra9718
  • Created on: 18-04-16 17:57
what is climate?
the average temperature and precipitation over 30 years.
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what is weather?
the state of the atmosphere at a particular place and time as regards heat, cloudiness, dryness, sunshine, wind, rain, etc.
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what is a biome?
a large naturally occurring community of flora and fauna occupying a major habitat.
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which are the world's climatic regions and biomes?
tundra/desert/mediterranean/maritime/tropical/tropical grasslands/
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what is El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)?
is a climatic phenomenon that has effects all over the globe.
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where is the tundra biome located?
it is located in the Artic region throughout Europe, Asia and America, in the antartic continent and in the mountainous regions
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how many days lasts the growing season in the tundra regions?
50-60 days
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what is the average temperature in winter of the tundra?
-34°C
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what is the temperature of the tundra in summer?
3-12°C
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what is the yearly precipitation of the tundra?
25 cm
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what would be connected to the temperatures of the tundra?
permafrost soil
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what would be an example for adaptations for plants in the tundra?
carrying photosynthesis in these cold environments, resisting sweeping winds and disturbances of the soil as they grow close together low to the ground, and the small leaves they have to retain moisture.
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in normal years where do the trade winds blow and what do they cause?
they blow westwards to the landmasses of Australia which causes an uplift of nutrients in the west coast of South America.
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what causes dry conditons in the region?
a cool sea temperature, high pressure, high temperatures
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what happens in australia in normal years?
there is a warm sea temperature which causes evaporation, then there is moist conditions that added to the low pressure it causes condensation and therefore precipitation.
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what happens during La Niña years?
the same as normal years but intensified in australia there is floodings, heavy rainfall and mudslides while in south america there is bushfires and droughts
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what happens to the trade-winds during El Niño years?
they are reversed but they get weaker or stop
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what happens to australia and indonesia during El Niño years?
trade winds blow eastwards causing an uplift of nutrients in the coast of Australia and the high pressure in the area of indonesia and australia added to the high temperatures and the lack of precipitation causes bushfires and droughts in the area
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what happens to south america during El Niño years?
there is a warm sea temperature which causes evaporation, then there is moist conditions that added to the low pressure it causes condensation and therefore precipitation.
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what is a long term climate change?
milankovitch
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what are the stages of milankovitch?
eccentricity/obliquity/procession
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what are the mylankovitch cycles?
a phenomenon in the earth's orbit that consist in 3 cycles: eccentricity,obliquity and procession
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how many years take each cycle?
eccentricity: 100,000, obliquity: 41000, procession: 10000-23000
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what happens in eccentricity?
the earth's orbit is not completely circular and follows an elliptical path, the strength of the ellipse is termed eccentricity of orbit.
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what do the variations influence this phase?
the amount of solar radioactivity that the planet receives
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what happens in obliquity?
the earth fluctuates between the angle 22° and 24° over a period of 41000 changing the distribution of solar radiation at different latitudes
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what happen if the tilt increases?
it increases the solar radiation received at higher latitudes in the summer and it decreases on winter.
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what is procession due to?
gravitational interaction of the other planetary bodies in the solar system , primarily the moon and jupiter as the tilt of the earth changes at different points of the orbit changes.
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what is procession known for?
the precession of the equinoxes.
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what does procession affects?
the intensity of the seasons in each hemisphere, it also affects the distribution of hemispheres over time.
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what can these phases be associated with?
glaciation when the earth's tilt is at 21.5°
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what happens in the northern hemisphere when the earth's tilt is at 21.5°?
it receives less heat from the sun in summer and it is extremely cold in winter.
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where is the current axis of the earth?
23.5°
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what are the causes of climate change?
variations in the earth's orbit/enhanced greenhouse gases/destruction of CO2 sinks/sunspot cycle/volcanic activity
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what are the main greenhouse gases?
methane/carbon dioxide/nitrous oxide/water vapour/ozone
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what are the evidences for climate change?
pikas/coral reefs/ice cores/tree rings
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what is the greenhouse effect?
is a natural process of our atmosphere
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how much colder would be the earth without the greenhouse effect?
about 10°C colder
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what enters to the atmosphere?
short wave solar radiation from the sun (light energy)
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what happens to some of the solar radiation from the sun (light energy)?
some of it is absorbed in the atmosphere and some is scattered or reflected as it hits water and dust particles, leaving the atmosphere.
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what happens to the remaining solar energy?
it heats the earth's surface and is converted into long wave heat energy
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what is radiated into the atmosphere ?
the long wave heat energy
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what happens to some this long wave heat energy?
escapes into space and some of it is trapped and absorbed by greenhouse gas, such as hydrogen and oxygen.
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what happens to the energy absorbed by greenhouse gases?
it is re-emitted, warming the earth's atmosphere and surface
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what is happening to the greenhouse effect?
is being increased due to a increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
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what is contributing to this increase in greenhouse gases?
human activities such as, burning fossil fuels, deforestation and industry
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what means more greenhouse gases?
it means less heat can escape to space
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what is happening to the earth's temperature?
it further increases
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what is this rise in temperature called?
global warming
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what are the cause of the decline in species?
Habitat loss or degradation
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what can pikas act as?
'early-warning' indicators of how distributions of species may shift in the future.
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where do pikas live?
in rocky talus slopes and lava flows throughout the western U.S. and cool, high-mountain habitats
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where are the pikas moving to?
they're moving up mountain slopes(remote high-elevation areas)
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by 2050 what could happen to the annual temperatures in the south-east of the uk?
it could be on average more than 2°C warmer than they are now
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what could happen to these temperatures by 2080?
it could rise to more than 3°C
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as well as the UK is likely to be hotter, what else is the UK capable of?
the UK is capable to be wetter.
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why is the UK likely to be wetter?
due to a increase in rainfall and through to rising sea levels due to melting ice caps.
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which parts could end up under water?
parts of east-anglia and the south-east
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what is the threat of rising sea level compounded of?
by the fact that the UK is gradually tilting.
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what could happen to winter precipitation by 2080?
it could rise by 20%
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The recent floods and storms in the UK could also be part of a pattern _________occurring as a result of __________.
of more extreme weather/climate change
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will the varieties of plants grown in the UK will also be affected by global warming?
yes
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If we got a couple of degrees warmer what could be grown?
maize/peach/grapes/nectarines
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What are warmer seas around the UK are likely to attract?
various species of fish such as mullets, anchovies and sharks
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what could thrive in the uk hot summer?
pests and diseases
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what kind of pests can thrive?
Colorado beetle/cockroaches/fleas/mites/Bloodsucking ticks/ scorpions/ poisonous spiders and even malaria carrying mosquitoes
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what kind of diseases may increase?
skin cancer and cataracts
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what can be considered as a national strategy to climate change?
CCC( climate change comitee )
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what is a pressure group and what is an example of one?
a group that tries to influence public policy in the interest of a particular cause. an example would be WWF
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what are the strategies used by individuals in order to address climate change?
recycling/energy efficiency/using renewable energy sources/ alternative forms of transport
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what is a description of recycling?
recycle old materials or leftovers that you don't need
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what is the description of energy efficiency?
turn off appliances at night or when it's not being used
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what is the description of using renewable energy sources?
use new alternatives to the actual sources but less contaminants
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what is the description of using alternative forms of transport?
the strategy of not using cars so often and using the option of public transport.
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explain how recycling will combat climate change?
people will reuse the materials as other materials
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explain how energy efficiency will combat climate change?
it will be the equivalent to removing 245000 cars from the road
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explain how using a renewable energy source will combat climate change?
it will reduce the contamination alone by normal
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explain how alternative forms of transport will combat climate change?
it will reduce the green house gas emissions
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what are advantages and disadvantages of recycling?
advantages:people might support it/ it may be more economic-disadvantages: people might not be able to recycle/ people don't like changes/people may find it difficult
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what are advantages and disadvantages of energy efficiency?
people might support it/ may be more economic/ -advantages:people don't like changes/people use computers all the time/ people might forget to turn off their appliances
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what are the advantages and disadvantages of using renewable energy sources?
advantages:people might support it/it may be more economic/ it may be less contaminant than the ones being currently used
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

what is weather?

Back

the state of the atmosphere at a particular place and time as regards heat, cloudiness, dryness, sunshine, wind, rain, etc.

Card 3

Front

what is a biome?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

which are the world's climatic regions and biomes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what is El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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