Unit 2 Geography


Australia Drought Impacts


  • Farms abandoned causing financial ruin.
  • 2007- 1% of economy lost affecting government spending, wine producing industry affected. 


  • Rural communities suffered most by turning into ghost towns, suicide rate soared. 
  • Families found it difficult to tackle rising water prices and the cost of importing food.
  • Water restrictions in all cities, e.g. 4 minute showers imposed everywhere. 


  • Loss of vegetation and wildlife, impacts on biodiversity and migratory birds.
  • Toxic algae tiggered by warmer water, declining the water quality.
  • Increased bushfires threatened cities like Sydney.
  • Lake Corangamite in Victoria reduced to its lowest level in 60 years.
  • By 2007 Sydney's reservoirs were only 40% full.
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Australia Drought Management

National plan for water security 2007:

  • Cost: $10bn over ten years
  • Modernising irrigation methods: Improvements in piping and water storage as 65% of all water used for farming is lost through overwatering or before it reaches the farm.
  • Reforming basin management: Supplies 2m people so MDB Commision will control the whole basin rather than sharing between states.
  • Upgrading water information: Help water collecting agencies to improve stream flow measurements and groundwater stores. 

Australian Water Fund: 

  • Cost: $2bn
  • Water smart Australia: Using smart technologies and practises in large scale projects like Lake Brewster which will save upto 10 gigalitres of water and improve water security by 4%.
  • Changing farming practises: Using drought resistant plants, crop management technology, precision farming, sustainable farming.
  • Conserving water: Giving community water grants for water saving and re-using projects, using desalination plants and generally reducing water consumption.
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Sahel Drought Impacts


  • Food insecurity in Niger: 90% of harvest was lost causing food shortages and prices to rise. 
  • Loss of wealth as nearly 75% of cattle was sold at very low prices. 


  • 3m people facing food insecurity and starvation, 800,000 children malnourished. 
  • Conflict due to competition for scarce pastures. 
  • Migration where men left to find work in cotton and sugar plantations in Ivory Coast. 
  • Feeding centres set up by the Red Cross and UNICEF ended up as overcrowded camps with poor conditions and a lack of resources.


  • Desertification affecting marginal lands caused by reduced rainfall, overcropping and overgrazing. 
  • Loss of water sources, Lake Chad dried up because the rivers ran dry causing a loss of biodiversity and aquatic life. 20m people rely on Lake Chad.
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Sahel Drought Management

Water management projects:

  • Burkina Faso: water storage tanks restored to provide a supply of clean water.
  • Tigray, Ethiopia: rainwater harvesting by individual farmers who were assisted with advice and had access to small loans.
  • WaterAid built spring fed wells which provide a clean and reliable water supply.
  • Elephant pumps in Malawi.

Improving Farming Techniques:

  • Oxfam has been working in Niger and Burkina Faso to revert back to tradtional farming techniques which enable communities to take responsibility for their food insecurity. 
  • Bunds which stop soil erosion and hold water allowing crops to be grown.
  • Pits dug and filled with compost surrounded by stones as protection from the sun and wind. 
  • Stones laid across fields which collects condensation and improves soil moisture. 
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Boscastle Flooding Causes

Catchment Area:

  • Relatively small with steep sided valleys which funnel surface run-off quickly, causing a flash flood. 
  • Confluence of the River Valency and River Jordan just before the village suddenly increases the discharge. 
  • Impermeable slate rock and previous rainfall has saturated the ground increasing run-off.


  • August 2004, heavy, thundery showers developed as remnants of of Hurricane Alex which crossed the Atlantic. 
  • Bands of showers aligned themselves with winds which stayed stationary for many hours.
  • 2000mm of rain fell in 24 hours in a localised area on Bodmin Moor. 

Human Factors: 

  • Increased development (concrete) in the upper part of the village
  • Hedges removed to make fields bigger which speeds up run-off.
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Boscastle Flooding Impacts


  • £50m total cost, £20m damage to buildings and services. 
  • 4 footbridges swept away and main road bridges damaged. 
  • Individual costs of flood damage to businesses and homes. Insurance costs as 116 cars swept out to sea. 
  • Cost of clean up operations and new flood control measures £4.5m. 


  • 1000 people affected, no deaths, 100 people rescued by helicopter from their roofs. 
  • 58 homes badly damaged, 4 had to be demolished so people had to stay with friends and relations, rented properties or hotels. 
  • Serious damage to infrastructure affected services like roads, electricity. 


  • Raw sewage contaminated flood water and caused health concerns. 
  • Damage to vegetation and devestation to landscape in the river valley.
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Boscastle Flooding Responses

Short Term: Rescue

  • Coastguard 
  • 7 Sea King helicopters, police, fire ambulence crews mobilised 
  • Temporary selters set up in nearby schools and the village was closed off for 10 days.

Long Term: 

  • Flood Management: £4.5m, channel of the River Valency was widened and deepened, drainage culvert from the River Jordan enlarged to carry double the volume of water, proposal to relocate the road bridge to stop debris being backed up behind it, redesigned footbridges to cope with flood water, carpark rebuilt on high ground with barriers to stop cars being washed down into the river.
  • Soft engineering:wetland created by braiding the channel to create a flood holding lake.
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Tropical Revolving Storm Causes

  • Intense low pressure systems formed between latitudes of 5*-20* north and south of the equator in the ITCZ where sea temperatures are 26-27*C to a depth of 60m and humidity of 75%. 
  • Unstable warm moist air rapidly rises to make cumulo-nimbus clouds which group together to form a high energy hurricane reaching altitudes of 10km. 
  • Coriolis force causes it to spin. 
  • At the eye of the storm which is 20-40km wide, cold air sinks, pressure is low (960mb) and it is calm. 
  • Cirrus clouds spread out across the top of the hurricane up to 1,500 km across caused by cool air. 
  • The hurricane is blown by the trade winds at a speed of 32-80km per hour. 
  • A speed of 10km/h classes it as a hurricane and the strength is classified by the Saffir Simpson scale 1-5. 
  • Heavy rainfall of 250mm a day. 
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Hurricane Katrina Causes

  • Formed over the Bahamas in August 2005 and moved westward across South Florida as a catagory 1. 
  • Pressure readings fell to 902 mb
  • Windspeeds rose to 280km/h
  • 200mm of rain fell. 
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Hurricane Katrina Impacts


  • $89bn economic damage. Oil production reduced by 25% for 6 months, 30 offshore oil platforms damaged, 9 oil refineries shut down. 
  • Personal costs to individuals and insurance companies, repairs to existing flood protection.


  • 1,836 dead, mostly in New Orleans which flooded when levees were breeched, 1m+ evacuated or homeless. 
  • Sports Stadium used as a shelter for the 20% left behind who were poor, non-white but social problems occured including looting. Roads and bridges damaged impacting communities, electricity supplies disrupted as power lines were blown down causing 3m to not have electricity. Water supplies contaminated. 


  • 80% of New Orleans was flooded, storm surge destroyed sections of the barrier islands and gulf beaches. 5,300km of forest destroyed. 20% of wetlands lost affecting the breeding grounds of turtles, pelicans and fish. 16 National Wildlife Refugees damaged. 
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Hurricane Katrina Responses


  • The track was monitored and the Hurricane Watch announced the hurricane within 36 hours before the event and the next day a state of emergency was declared. 
  • 1.2m people evacuated in three phases starting with the immediate coastal areas, 80% of residents were evacuated although there were problems with transort.
  • National organisations were sent in to rescue, control the situation and provide assistance. The Sports Stadium was set up as a shelter. 


  • The Coast 2050 $14bn Programme: a hard engineering method in New Orleans. 
  • Levees and floodwalls have been repaired and strengthened, floodgates and pumps installed.
  • A series of weirs to protect the city from storm surges. 
  • Soft engineering includes flood control, water diversion and coastal restoration, restoration of wetlands. 
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Cyclone Nargis Causes

  • Cyclone developed in the Bay of Bengal in April and made landfall in the South West of Myanmar in May 2008. 
  • It tracked along the coast which prevented it from losing power as it moved inland with winds of 215km/h. 
  • The storms tracks were unpredictable, thought to track over Bangladesh but swung eastwards. 
  • Indian meteorologists warned the government 48 hours before Nargis hit.
  • The military Junta which governs Myanmar did not issue warnings or implement any evacuation.
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Cyclone Nargis Impacts


  • $10bn worth of damage
  • Rice fields flooded losing harvest and income, most of the population worked on the fields. 
  • Salt water contaminated farmland causing a longer term loss of food and income.
  • 75% of buildings collapsed, 95% on the delta, cost of rebuilding buildings. 


  • 1.5m affected, 140,000 dead, 50,000 displaced. 
  • 50% of population died, some from after the event from lack of food and water, disease, lack of medical care.
  • Nearly 3m homeless after 95% of homes were destroyed on the delta. 75% of hospitals were damaged or destroyed. 


  • Rice fields flooded, pollution from sewage and dead bodies, 45m ha of mangroves damaged. Floodwater penetrated 40-50km inland.
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Cyclone Nargis Responses

  • Initially the Military Government refused aid despite international pressure, but the scale of the disaster meant that a week after the event basic food supplies, water, tents and medical supplies were sent in. 
  • 10 days after that aid workers from the Association of SE Asian Nations (ASEAN) were admitted. 
  • 3 weeks after the cyclone struck, international aid was accepted but only 25% of the country had recieved help of any kind. 
  • Indian Navy and air force supplied tents, blankets, medicines, medical personnel and 2 mini hospitals.
  • Thailand sent medical supplies and food supplies from the Thai Red Cross. 
  • The UK sent an international relief team to help with the co-ordination of the international relief effort. 
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Sheffield Research Resources

Youtube Showreel: Brand image of 'a sustainable and vibrant city economy with a high quality environment which reflects Sheffield's industrial heritage' in a video

www.sheffield.gov.uk Masterplan: Talks about the Gold Route which is a £50m flagship scheme.

Youtube UK Landscape Award 2010: Shows success

www.sheffieldforum.co.uk: Comments made by local people.

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Sheffield Fieldwork

EQA: Regenerated areas are much better than the back streets. Winter Gardens got 4.8, Division Street got 3.

Bi-polar: Echo of EQA, Peace Gardens got 89, Back Street got 20.

Questionnaire: Do you know what the Gold Route is? 82% said no. How well is Sheffield's heritage reflected in the regeneration of the city centre? Modal rank of 3 so the general public recognise the reflection of Sheffield's heritage. 

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Victoria Quays Regeneration and Success


  • 1990s former warehouses, offices and canal restored
  • Warehouses now used as offices and apartments
  • New office blocks built are occupied by prestigious companies, like Lloyds Bank
  • Hilton Hotel overlooks canal basin


  • Lack of visitors due to distance from Sheffield's city center, it needs to be connected
  • Masterplan proposed that Victoria Quays would be part of a 'new pedestrian axis'
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Arran's Need to Rebrand

  • Low income, seasonal jobs
  • Few visitors between April and October
  • Difficult access to Arran as there is only one ferry
  • Only Brodick Castle remains open in winter, every other attraction is closed
  • Unfavorable climate compared to abroad, has to compete with abroad due to globalisation
  • Lack of population, ageing population as young people leave for better opportunities
  • Lack of opportunities 
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Arran's Players

EU provided £1.5m through the Visit Scotland Challenge Fund, gave grants to businesses

Local government enabled changed through planning and financial support

Local firms established a commercial company called the Destination Management Organisation (DMO)

Private sector investment, like Cal Mac ferries have increased the number of sailings 

Local community has been affected (some positively, some negatively) by the increase in visitors

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Arran's Rebranding Strategy

  • Introduced a new slogan 'Island time in no time' suggesting it is a place to relax. 
  • Providing more 'pay to play' activities 
  • Developed a brand identity by promoting Arran as a short stay, high spend destination with all year round luxury facilities. It was aimed to be seen as the UK's number one island destination to attract people from home and abroad. 
  • Created a new website 'VisitArran' promoting it as an ideal short break holiday and shopping destination. 
  • The Arran Descovery Pass promotes family holidays to spread economic benefits throughout the Island.
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Arran's Success


  • PR company organised a Miss Scotland photography shoot in 2007 promoting 'Arran Aloha' and reinforcing the 'island time in no time' slogan. This gained publicity of 40 newspapers and 22 TV shows. 
  • 2008 was the busiest on record gaining over 5,000 visitors.
  • Arran's tourism values increased from £27m in 2006 to £35 in 2010. 


  • Local people liked the quietness of Arran but they find the new visitors invasive and difficult to cope with. 
  • Concerns that they had lost 'the real Arran'.
  • An increase in traffic. 
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Barry's Need to Rebrand


  • The area used to be a Victorian seaside town with a coal port but there was an industrial decline in post war years. 
  • The tradtional seaside holiday resort declined due to increasing consumer demands and cheaper oversea holiday options. 
  • Deprivation of traditional shopping areas due to out of town developments. 
  • The general poor image deters personal and corporate investment. 


  • Designated as a Strategic Regeneration Area in May 2010, which were established for in areas of greatest need. They are in places which offer the greatest potential to benefit areas. 
  • Comments by local people in the newspaper suggest that the environment is bad from the dog poo, the litter. People said that the built environment made the area look unattractive, like broken walls, broken road works and broken down buildings. 
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Barry's Players

  • Barry Action- a partnership to reposition the role of Barry's economy. 
  • Barry Joint Initiative- a partnership to facilitate the redevelopment of 200 acres of dockland (Waterfront Barry).
  • Welsh Tourist Board
  • Local Businesses
  • Local people
  • Tour companies
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Barry's Rebranding Strategy

The Tourism Strategy 2010: 

Gavin and Stacey offered opportunities to bring in younger people and into specific locations, e.g. Nessa's Slots. 

Locals benefit as they can use this to their advantage, e.g. the lady who lives in Stacy's house shows people around for money.

Websites enable easy booking for tours from Barry and London. 

Businesses develop the Gavin and Stacey brand using souvenirs like t-shirts, mugs etc. 

£48m of public investment has drawn in just under £100m from the private sector. 

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Barry's Success

The number of visitors increased from 200,000 in 2003 to 900,000 in 2013.

3.1m viewers said they planned to visit Barry after the series.

Locals say the area can get very congested during major events, bank holidays and in the summer. 

Gavin and Stacey is said to be a global brand. 

Unsustainable as the brand will get old. 

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Cornwall's Need to Rebrand


  • Falling farm produce prices as supermarkets secure the cheapest price possible and the UK withdrew their subsidies. 
  • Declining fish industry as quotas have been allocated to other countries. 
  • Collapse of tin mining as world prices fell and accessible reserves became exhausted. 
  • China clay quarry is still important but new technologies have reduced the workplace. 

This caused: 

  • High unemplyment and low wages. 
  • Dependency on poorly paid, low skilled and seasonal tourist industry. 
  • 70% of income generated by the tourist industry leaks out of Cornwall through hotel and restaurant chains. 
  • Lack of affordable housing.
  • Lack of opportunities has resulted in young educated people leaving. 
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Cornwall's Rebranding Strategy and Success

Rebranding Strategy:

The Eden Project is a flagship project which contributes to the 'Cool Cornwall' image. It was funded by the EU's Objective One Funding which provides funding to local businesses by matching any money they can raise themselves. It is a series of biomes which have contrasting environments inside.


  • Visitor numbers went from 6m in the first 4 years is now a steady 750,000 per year. 
  • Each visitor spends on average £150 in Cornwall. 
  • All staff were recruited locally, 600 fulltime jobs were created, 75% were previously unemployed. 
  • Company sources all food locally and interest is put into spin-off attractions. 
  • Lots of traffic jams which increases journey times and is the major source of pollution as most people use cars.
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Sizergh Barn Farm Players

Brand Image: diversification, environmentally friendly, sustainable, local. 

  • Richard Park- owner and catalyst
  • EU- funding change in deprived areas
  • Government 
  • Customers- tourists and locals
  • Workers- provide local labour
  • Kendal College- work with Park in the Growing Well Project
  • Environmentalists- educating 
  • Council- planning application
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Grange Over Sands Research Sources

GOS  Regeneration Study 2007: promotes the Vision for 2017 describing it as North West England's most distinctive, contemporary coastal resort town that has used its Edwardian heritage as a strong asset in its regeneration. 

GOS Audience Development Plan 2008: gives information about the Promenade and its decline, e.g. the derelict Lido being a strong landmark. 

Cumbria Observatory: the numbers of visitors have decreased from 80,000 in 2001 to 54,000 in 2007. 42% of the population is 65+ and 45% is the working population.

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Grange Over Sands Fieldwork


  • A systematic sample every 100m to get a broader view of the environment.
  • Presented as a line graph where the Lido scored the lowest (1/5) compared to the average of 3.5/5. 

Bipolar perception analysis:

  • Echo of the EQA.


  • Opportunist sample, size of 80 presented as a range of graphs including a wordle and pie charts.
  • 70% of locals questioned used the promenade at least twice a month, only 30% questioned were tourists and only 50% had visited the promenade.
  • It is shown as a valuable asset for the local community and is not see as a tourist destination anymore.
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River Eea Risk of Flooding Research


  • Report on the 2009 floods where the average annual rainfall is 2000mm
  • Exposed to the full force of depressions from over the Atlantic
  • High levels of rainfall saturates the ground preventing infiltration and increasing surface run-off

Environment Agency Flood Maps:

  • Cartmel is situated on low-lying land adjacent to the River Eea, upstream of Cark, lots of the area is at high risk.
  • Cark is situated on relatively low-lying land adjacent to the River Eea where it is mostly medium risk which is subject to tidally influenced flooding. 

OS Maps: 

  • The River Eea is a relatively short system rising in Newton Fell where it meets two larger tributaries just north of Cartmel. 
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River Eea Risk of Flooding Fieldwork

River Channel: 

  • Determines its capacity to hold water and its efficiency to enable water to pass through quickly. The hydraulic radius was surveyed in 3 places; Newton Fell, Cartmel and Cark. The channel got wider and deeper so the efficiency increased as we moved down the course.


  • Arable agricultural use, cleared hedges and ploughed fields in Newton Fell. In Cartmel and Cark there was building on the floodplain increasing the flood risk. 


  • To reduce the risk of river flooding the river has been straightened and embanked in Carmel and Cark as shown through the photos and sketches. 
  • Evidence of flood defences mostly in Cartmel where there are flood gates, high windows and lots of vegetation. 
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River Kent Impacts Research


  • Shows past flood events to see previous impacts. 

EA Flood Maps with Land Use:

  • Shows physical techniques to reduce impacts, like sacrificial land. 
  • Previous levels of damage made by flood events, mostly in the town centre where the damage is to businesses and offices.

Westmorland Gazette:

  • Background on Kendal, showing previous impacts mostly being social and economic
  • Details on how it affected people, primary schools were closed and emergency services rescued people from cars as well as the economic impacts like the loss of stock, damage to property, increased insurance. 
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River Kent Impacts Fieldwork

Oral History: 

  • Eye-witness account from a community police officer explaining information on the severity and extent of recent floods, the impact on transport through Kendal and likelihood to flood. 
  • Management is said to be effective with small floods, badly effects businesses and clear up means that shops stay closed for weeks. 


  • Opportunist sample of 40 with open and closed questions.
  • How well is flooding managed? 45% said quite well. 

Annotated Photos/ Sketches: 

  • Showing modifications of the river channel or bridges to reduce friction, increase efficiency an building designs to protect infrastructure. 
  • Examples include flood gates, widening and deepening of rivers.
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