Aerobic training

Aerobic training

Aerobic capacity= the ability of the body to inspire, transport and utilise oxygen 

VO2 max= max volume of oxygen inspired, transported and utilised per min of exhaustive exercise

(ml/kg/min)

Affecting factors:

Physiological make-up= stronger resp. muscles, heart, SV, CO, SO fibres= higher VO2 max

Age= declines with age- efficiency lost in elasticity of heart, blood vessels and lung tissue= lower VO2 max

Gender= females lower than males- higher body fat, smaller lung volumes, lower Hb levels= lower VO2 max

Training= increases VO2 max by up to 20%- adaptations to heart, lungs and blood 

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Evaluation of VO2 max

Direct gas analysis= expired air captured, results graphed and calc used. += direct measurement, accurate, different exercises -= specialist equip, not suitable for elderly, maximal 

Cooper 12 min run= run as far as possible in 12 mins- calculation. += large groups, test yourself, cheap. -= prediction, subject motivation, not sport specific 

NCF multi-stage fitness test= 20m progressive shuttle run, compare to standardised table. += large groups, simple, published table of VO2 max equivalents. -= prediction, not sport specific, elderly

Queens college step test= stepping on and off box for 3 mins. HR recovery used to predict results. += sub-maximal, simple, HR eaisly monitored. -= prediction, not sport specific, shorter subjects at disadvantage 

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Adaptations

Respiratory system= 

  • resp muscles become stronger
  • increased surface area of alveoli 

= increased volume of O2 diffused into blood, easier to perform exercise, delayed OBLA, alleviates symptoms of asthma 

CV system=

  • cardiac hypertrophy
  • increased elasticity of arterial walls
  • increased number of RBCs/ Hb volume 

= decreased BP, reduced onset of fatigue, increased blood flow and O2 transport to muscles, lower risk of CHD, hypertension 

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Adaptations

Musculo-skeletal system=

  • SO fibre hypertrophy
  • increased stores of myoglobin 
  • increased strength of connective tissue 
  • FOG fibres more aerobic 

= increased joint stability, delayed OBLA, increased metabolic rate, decreased risk of injury

Metabolic function=

  • increased activity of aerobic enzymes
  • decreased fat mass 
  • decreased insulin resistance 

= increased use of fuel and O2 to provide energy, improved body composition, delayed OBLA, easier to perform exercise 

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