Unit 4 Psychology Edexcel RN Child Psychology

Again, like in the criminal psychology RN, long and dense, full of detail.

These RN include: 

-Key assumptions and some short definitions

-Methodology- Naturalistic observations and their use in child psychology, structural observations and their use in child psychology, case studies and their use in child psychology, evaluation of observations and case studies in ethical terms, longitudinal studies and cross-cultural studies.

-Bowlby's theory of attachement and the MDH (includes Harlow and Zimmerman 1959 study on Rhesus monkeys)

-Ainsworth's Strange situation and the cross-cultural research (detailed examples are Japan and Germany)

-Deprivation including studies by Robertson, Spitz, Cocket and Tripp and Rutter-Isle of Wight. (Study in detail= Bowlby's study of 44 juvenile thieves 1944). In this section there's also a part about reducing the effects of privation.

-Privation including studies by Freud and Dann 1951 and Koluchova and the Czech twins. (Study in detail=Genie's study by Curtiss 1977). In this section there's also a part about if the effects of privation are reversible)

-Autism- characteristics, biological and cognitive explanation and two ways it affects child development.

-Daycare- description, two studies and factors that affect it.

-Key issue- does childcare have negative or positive effects on children?

-Practical- content analysis

I hope it works for your revision!

Good luck in your exams! ;)

(If you have seen my criminal psychology RN, these RN are a bit longer)

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  • Created by: Aina
  • Created on: 15-01-12 21:03

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Unit 4
Child Psychology


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Key assumptions- how it is used and why it's important
Interested in infants and young children
2 parts to child psychology: research (to understand a child) and practice (to
help children with problems)
Look at how children develop from birth to adolescence.
At children's emotional development.
At how little or…

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Naturalistic observation research methods
Conducted in child's natural setting
Observation is not planned--controls not put in place.
Qualitative (descriptions of child's activity) + quantitative (tallying) data are
E.g. researcher that wants to investigate child's play goes to a playground.
E.g. researcher that wants to investigate child parent rs…

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Little interpretation or inference needed, so valid data.
To understand real behaviour and therefore help children with problems develop
appropriate behaviour.
To have an understanding of the environment that the behaviour takes place in.
Time sampling- chunks of time allocated to see what behaviour happens during
each specific time. E.g.…

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Activities must not harm child + need consent from parent or legal guardian.

Use of structured observations in child psychology


Set up situations or times to watch a child's problematic behaviour. This
behaviour is recorded.
The observers want to know then and why the problem behaviour occurs.

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Researcher bias- subjective as researchers may become close to child and
loose objective view.


Used in situations that wouldn't be ethical to use other research method, e.g.
Conducted on rare + unique occasions
May violate confidentiality, informed consent + right of withdraw of child.

Use of case…

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Special ethical issues that apply when studying children:

Psychologists need to ask parents/guardians for consent.
They also need to ask children's consent and they choose to explain the study.

Evaluation of observations with regard to ethics.

If an observation takes place in a public place=ethical
Covert- no informed consent, no…

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It is impossible to control all of the individual/family based extraneous variables-
e.g. family type of child.
There's a high dropout rate, as the study takes on for a long period of time.
Bias- maybe the families that continue in the study and do not dropout have
similar characteristics the…

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Bowlby's theory of attachment and the Maternal Deprivation


Links to the Psychodynamic and Biological approach
o The first years of life strongly affect later development
o The focus was the importance of forming an attachment in the early
years, especially with the main caregiver (the mother)…

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Attachment process
First year in the child's development is critical.
During the first 6 months:
o Proximity promoting behaviour to encourage a bond= crying and smiling
o Distress and anxiety shown towards strangers + caregivers are given
During the second 6 months:
o The caregiver= safe base and source…


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