Unit 4 Edexcel Psychology Complete RN on Criminal Psychology

Quite dense and long, but I like to study with a looooot of detail.

These RN include:

-Key assumptions

-Explanations of criminal beh (SLT, SFP and a little bit of Eysenck)

-Treatments for criminals- TEP and AMP

-Methodology- Lab and field experiments and their applications for EWT. Field studies.

-Experiments- Loftus and Palmer (1974), Yarmey (2004), Yuille and Cutshall (1986)

-Key issue- Are criminals born or made?

Each section is described and evaluated, being worthy 6 marks each description and evaluation.

Hope it will work for you! It did for me (:

Good luck for your exaaaaaaams!

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  • Created by: Aina
  • Created on: 15-01-12 19:45
Preview of Unit 4 Edexcel Psychology Complete RN on Criminal Psychology

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Unit 3
Criminal Psychology
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Key assumptions- how it is used and why it's important
They study:
Causes of crime
Treatment of offenders
Identifying criminals
Predicting new crimes
Explaining crime using psychological concepts
Police techniques, profiling, eyewitness testimony, justice system
Recidivism- repeating a behaviour that breaks the law.…read more

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Explanation of criminal behaviour
The Social Learning theory
Description:
This explanation is based on the fact that we learn criminal behaviours from
others. It looks at reinforcement, modelling and role models. It comes from the
learning approach.
Criminals learn criminal behaviours by observing other people, usually role
models. People tend to observe and imitate those they identify with (role
models). Therefore, if the role model of someone does criminal behaviours, the
person could learn these behaviours, converting himself into a criminal.…read more

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People can become desensitised by seen violence in the media.
Evaluation:
Bandura, Ross and Ross (1961) found out that boys were more likely to be
aggressive after observing a male aggressive role model than after observing a
non-aggressive role model.
However, this study may lack of ecological validity as the children were
not in their natural environment.
Barlett et. al (2007) found out that with the videogame Mortal Combat:
Deathly alliance, more blood led to more aggressive thoughts.…read more

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Labelling and the Self-fulfilling Prophecy
Description:
From the Social approach.
The theory states that when someone is labelled in a determined way, the
tagged person will believe this label and act accordingly to the expectative
people have on them.
Labels come mainly from stereotyping (making assumptions about one person
and generalising to a group of people).
E.g. A son of a thief is regarded by many as `thief', the boy could believe this
label and start stealing.…read more

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Reductionist- the theory doesn't take in account many other factors which
could lead to crime such as economic or biological traits of offenders.
Bandura, Ross and Ross (1961) showed that children would display aggression
after watching a role model displaying aggression. This study shows that
violence could be learnt and it states that criminal behaviour could be learnt.
Says it's not a result of SFP.…read more

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Treating offenders
Token economy program
Description:
It is a form of behaviour modification based on operant conditioning. It is more
of a way of controlling behaviour in prisons rather than a solution for crime.
It is useful in prisons as it provides a legitimate way of gaining privileges e.g.
cigarettes. It also promotes positive social interaction between prison staff and
offenders.…read more

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One of the weaknesses of this programme is that it may be difficult for
offenders to generalise the learnt behaviours to the outer world. For example,
an antisocial girl may learn in a correctional, through rewards, to be polite. When
she get out, rewards for politeness will not be so obvious as in the institution,
so maybe she would stop the desired behaviour and star antisocial behaviours
again.
TEP can make prisoners dependent on staff.…read more

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Skill acquisition- offenders are showed ways of controlling their anger
e.g. counting up to 10, walking away, relaxation techniques.
3) Application practice- offenders role play situations in which they would
get angry and put in practice the skills learnt at step 2.
E.g.
o Anger because of being shouted at by boss
o Anger because of being unjustly shouted
o Man feels hot, and eyes go blurry
o Man must count up to 10 and wash his face with fresh water
o Man leaves room.…read more

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Problems with self-reported data (experimenter effects, demand
characteristics, the fact that if they say they still feel anger they will remain in
prison for longer)
Reductionist-recidivism is not considered by studies
There is no consideration to the victim's viewpoint. A consideration could make
the prisoner's more aware of the consequences of their action + make AMT
more successful.
Methodology
Lab experiments
They happen in a controlled environment and experimenters as much as they
can the situation.…read more

Comments

chrlot grad

This is amazing !! XX

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