A2 Edexcel: Unit 4 (How psychology Works)

A complete revision guide to help you succeed in the final Unit of How Psychology Works. The revision guide includes key facts and mark scheme answers to help you gain full marks in the exam. All the best people!!!

In this booklet it covers clinical psychology (Schizophrenia and phobias), Issues and debates.

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  • Created by: Qasim
  • Created on: 15-03-13 18:49

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Unit 4:
Clinical Psychology

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Define clinical psychology

Clinical psychology is about diagnosing, explaining and treating mental illness. It seeks to
define what makes behaviour abnormal, and then to diagnose what the problem is so that it
can be treated. Clinical psychologists note of any symptoms their patient is suffering from
and how long they…

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Anyone who goes against these rules of is seen as abnormal. The behaviour cannot be
considered abnormal as long as society accepts it.

Evaluation of deviation from social norms
This definition is not always useful because breaking social norms can be worthwhile.
Societies can use this definition to gain social…

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construct validity, as it isn't a good way of measuring the disorder. Rosenhan (1973)
tested the validity of the diagnosis of schizophrenia by looking at how easily
psychiatrists could be fooled by means of faking a single symptom. Rosenhan concluded
that the DSM was not valid as it couldn't tell…

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Primary data can be qualitative and Researchers may be subjective in the
quantitative allowing researchers to types of data they look for, in particular
analyse results in various ways data that `fits' the hypotheses they are
trying to test.
Primary data is reliable because the
researcher can replicate the procedure…

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Strengths Weaknesses
Twin Studies generate a large volume of The usefulness of the data from twin
data. This makes the findings more studies depend on the instruments used
reliable to gather the data (some variables are
harder to measure than others)

Twin Studies suggest that genetic
components may be…

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A strong argument against using animals in experiments is that we cannot assess their
suffering. It is morally wrong to inflict pain and distress on animals. They are as important as
humans and have rights.

Using animals in experiments lacks ecological validity as it involves taking the animal out of…

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rapidly from one unrelated topic to the so that the limbs remain in whatever
other. position they are placed.

Disorganised behaviour-The disorganised Lack of speech - where the patient uses as
behaviour causes severe problems in an few words as possible.
affected person's ability to function in daily
life. Bathing,…

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Population Validity = High, the same results were gained in all 12 hospitals, so it can
generalised to all other hospitals. Several different hospitals were used in several different
states so there is evidence of some generalisability

Ethical Issues = Low = High, The names of the doctors and the…

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Ethics: Low, the study can be said to ethically sensitive as schizophrenia is a serious disorder.

Reliability: High, the 40 studies showed similar results obtained by Gottesman. Therefore the
study can be seen as reliable as similar results were achieved.


Biological Approach: The Dopamine Hypothesis


Schizophrenics have an…


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