Health and Social - Revision Cards on EVERY past paper question available HSC07 - food and fitness

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Identify the 3 units used when measuring VO2 max,
Millilitres(Ml), Per Minute, Per Kg of Body Weight
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Short term physiological effects for a female 65 year old with low VO2 max.
Increased heart rate e.g. pulse (1) with increased stroke volume (1) increasing cardiac output with more blood flow to skeletal muscles (1). Increased ventilation(1) due to increasing CO2 concentrations in the blood (1). Sweating(1). Skin flushes(1)
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How does exercise combat ageing?
Slows the rate at which the body system deteriorates(1) by maintaining muscle strength/stamina(1).Maintains flexibility(1) by stretching ligaments(1).Maintains bone strength-slows loss of calcium(1) Reduces cholesterol/stabilises blood pressure(1)
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Sources of Zinc
Meat(1), Pulses(1), Egg(1), Shellfish(1), Peas(1), Beans(1), Milk(1), Nuts(1), Cereal(1)
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Consequences of the body being deficient in Zinc
Delayed body growth(1). Loss of hair(1). Loss of appetite(1). Weakened immune system(1). Skin inflammation(1). Poor wound healing(1)
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Functions of Zinc
Involved in enzyme activity connected with energy release and protein building. Involved in immune system and sexual maturation.
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Functions of Calcium
Construction of bones/teeth(1) Muscle contraction(1) nerve transmission(1) blood clotting(1)
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Consequences of the body being deficit in Calcium
Causes rickets(1) weakened bones(1) especially in the legs/spine(1) Low bone density(1) causes osteoporosis in females(1) Impairment of muscles(1)
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Sources of calcium
Bread, Milk, Cheese, Greek Yoghurt, Soya Beans,Tofu, Nuts.
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Give one strength and one weakness of BMI
Strength-standardised measure which is good for showing progression. Weakness - doesn't take fat content/body build into account.
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Strengths of perceived exertion scales
Gives overall perception of effort(1) shows progression in effort level(1) safety in exercise-lowers risk of over exertion(1)
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Limitations of perceived exertion scales
Subjective measure(1) Perceptions may vary(1) Not good for comparisons between individuals (1) Does not measure fitness (1)
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Why is warming-up before exercise essential? With reference to physiological processes.
Prepares the body for exercise by preventing injury(1) Prevent muscle soreness(1) Gently raises pulse/cardiac output(1+1) Increases O2 delivery to muscles(1) Helps reduce O2 deficit at start of exercise(1) Increases muscle/temp/flexibility(3)
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Outline the principles of good practice when exercising and why they're important
Medical Checks-prevent over exertion and injury, find any underlying medical problems(4). Appropriate clothing/footwear-keepwarm/prevent overheating, allows sweating,comfort(4).Drink plenty of fluid -avoids dehydration/fainting(3)
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Sources of Vitamin A
Liver(1), Red Meat(1), Oily Fish(1), Eggs(1), Fortified Cereals(1), Greeny Leafy Vegetables(1), Beans(1), Peas(1).
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Sources of Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
Vegetables, Fruits, Eggs, Wholegrain Breads, Liver.
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Sources of Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
Milk, Eggs, Fortified Breakfast Cereals, Rice.
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Sources of Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
Meat, Fish, Wheat Flour, Eggs, Milk.
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Sources of Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid)
Brocoli, Brussel Sprouts, Liver, Peas, Brown Rice.
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Sources of Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)
Red Meat, Salmon, Cod, Milk, Cheese, Eggs, Fortified Breakfast Cereals.
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Sources of Vitamin C
Citrus Fruits -Lemon, Orange & Lime, Broccoli, Potatoes.
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Sources of Vitamin E
Nuts, Seeds, Soya, Corn, Olive Oil, Wheat Germ.
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Sources of Vitamin K
Green Leafy Vegetables - Kale, Vegetable Oils, Cereal.
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Functions of Vitamin A
Body growth(1) Bone maintenance(1) Skin(1) Eyes(1) Aids night vision(1)
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Functions of Vitamin B1/2/3
Works with other B groups to help release energy. Keeps the nervouse system healthy.
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Functions of Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid)
Works with B12 to form red blood cells. Reduces central nervous system deficits. Needed for pregnant women to prevent Spina Bifida.
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Functions of B12 (Cobalamin)
Makes red blood cells. Keeps the nervous system healthy. Processes folic acid.
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Functions of Vitamin C
Helps protect cells and keeps them healthy. Helps wound heeling.
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Functions of Vitamin D
Strong bones (1) Strong teeth (1) Aids absorption of calcium (1)
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Functions of Vitamin E
Acts as an antioxidant which protects cell membranes. Maintains healthy skin and eyes.
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Functions of Vitamin K
Needed for blood clotting to heal wounds.
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Name and outline two different types of muscular strength
Maximum strength(1) as the greatest force possible(1) in a single voluntary contraction(1). Dynamic Strength is the ability to overcome resistance(1) using high speed muscular contractions e.g. when throwing/jumping/sprinting(1)
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Name four diseases or disorders that someone may experience if she does not start to exercise regularly.
Hypertension(1) Atherosclerosis(1) Chronic Heart Disorder(1) Thrombosis/Stroke(1) Aneurism(1) Myocardial Infarction/Heart Attack(1) Type 2 Diabetes(1)
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Evaluate the benefits of regular exercise on the prevention of major diseases and disorders.
Prevention of disorders such as - Heart disease(1) Cardiovasculat incident(1) Cerebal Infarction/Stroke(1) Type 2 Diabetes(1) Hypertension(1) Benefits -Reduces risk of atherosclerosis/blood cholesterol(2) Weight loss(1) Control weight(1)`
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Suggest ways that someone could fit regular exercise into a busy work and family life
Walk to work(1) Gradually increase distance to walk to work(1) Go the gym before starting work(1) Attend an exercise class close to work during lunch break(1) Walk children to school(1) Go swimming with children(1) Do exercise DVD's at home(1)
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Outline the possible social benefits for someone if they were able to exercise regularly at a gym.
Interact through meeting new people(1) Interact in a variety of new ways(1) Make new friendships(1) Helps maintain existing friendships(1) Develops social/communication skills(1)
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Functions of protein
Build/growth(1) Maintain(1) Repair(1) Body tissue(1)
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Briefly outline how a high protein diet would be effective when exercising regularly
Protein is the main component of muscle(1) therefore protein is needed to build muscle growth(1) Protein in muscle enables movement(1) Muscles are vital to enable exercise(1) Protein used to repair muscle(1)
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Sources of protein
Meat(1) Fish(1) Eggs(1) Milk(1) Cheese(1) Nuts(1) Peas(1) Beans(1) Pulses(1) Soya(1) Tofu(1)
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Explain what VO2 max measures giving the units of measurement. In your answer, use someone with high VO2 max as an example.
High VO2 max involves having good or above average oxygen uptake and use(1) VO2 max measure aerobic fitness(1) in terms of the maximum capacity(1) to take in oxygen(1) transport it(1) and use in respiration(1) measured in Ml/kg/min(1)
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Explain the long-term physiological effects of training regularly on someone's aerobic fitness.
Increases the surface area of his lungs, improving oxygen diffusion(1) Increasing the numbers of capillaries in the lungs(1) Increasing the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood to skeletal muscles(1) Improving the stroke volume of the heart(1)
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Give two common barriers to individuals taking part in regular exercise. For each barrier suggest one different way it might be overcome.
Costs(1)-exercise for less; walk,cycle,fitness DVDs. Skill level(1)-use beginners class(1) exercise with a friend at home(1) Facility locations(1) - Exercise at home(1) housework(1) walk locally(1) Family(1) - exercise with family members(1)
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Discuss how exercising regularly may help someone control their weight. Refer to physiological processes in your answer.
Regular exercise reduces hunger(1) helping the appestat in the hypothalamus(1) less risk of overeating(1) storing excess food and gaining weight(1) Less stimulated psychologically by smell of food/not thinking about it(1) exercise uses up energy(1)
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cribe an exercise programme that would be suitable for a 60 year old female with hypertension and is overweight
Medical checks should be carrie dout to determine safety(1) Begin with low/gentle exercise(1) with small progressions steps(1) increasing demand(1) reduce intake of food(1) eat 3 balanced meals a day(1) non weight bearing activities e.g. walking(1)
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Sources of Iron
liver, kidney, heart (1) eggs (1) bread (1) green leafy vegetables (1) fortified breakfast cereals (1)
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Functions of Iron
Haemoglobin count in blood(1) transportation of oxygen around body(1) prevention of anaemia(1)
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Consequences of the body being deficient in Iron
red blood cells are formed with insufficient haemoglobin molecules (1) blood cannot carry sufficient oxygen to the body cells (1) muscles are easily fatigued (1) heart beats faster (1) person is tired and listless(1)
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Sources of Phosphorous
Meat, Milk, Fish, Cereal, Beans, Peas and Fruit.
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Functions of Phosporous
Bone growth. Cell Membrane structure. Activity of B vitamins.
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Consequences of the bodyeing deficient in phosphorous
Deficiency is very rare. Restricted bone growth. Muscle weakness.
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Sources of Iodine
Seafood
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Functions of Iodine
Production of thyroid hormones
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Consequences of the body being deficient in Iodine
Goitre and Hypothyroidism
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Explain why it is important that a person sees their GP before they begin to regularly exercise
For expert advice(1) to be checked for underlying health problems(1) which exercise may worsen(1) To check if fit enough(1) To help determine their personal exercise limits(1) prevent over exertion(1) Prevent injury(1)
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Evaluate the social benefits that going to the gym may have on someone
Social-exercises in groups(1) produces opportunity to interact(1) Mintains existing friendships(1) Meeting new people(1) Form new friendships(1) Develops social skills(1)
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Evaluate the psychological benefits that going to the gym may have on a person
Exercise reduces stress(1) reducing blood pressure(1) Will improve concentration span/decision making(1) Helps sleeping pattern(1)less likely to have indigestion(1) endorphins release a feel good factor boosting self esteem(1)
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What is meant by aerobic fitness?
The body can take in O2 (1) transport it to cells and tissues (1) utilise it (1) efficiently/ with ease AW (1) to sustain work for long periods/endurance high (1) refer to working beyond 12 minutes (1)
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Describe how does the body effectively use carbohydrates during exercise. Refer to physiological processes in your answer.
Refer to digestion of carbohydrate (1) results in glucose being absorbed into the blood stream (1) glucose is stored as glycogen AW (1) long chains of glucose molecules (1) stored in the liver and muscle cells (1) the glucose will combine with oxygen
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Explain how regular exercise can contribute to the emotional well-being of individuals
emotionally benefitting individuals by enhancing mood(1) by stimulating endorphins(1) helps also raise confidence(1) especially if lose weight(1)maintain ‘ideal’ weight (1) achieve body shape they want(1) reduce stress(1)
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Explain how regular exercise can contribute to the social well-being of individuals
provides opportunities(1) interact/meet new people(1) exercise with likeminded/common interest(1) social support(1) approval individuals o helps develop new friendships(1) maintain existing friendships(1) develop social skills(1)
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Sources of Vitamin D
Egg yolk(1) Sun light penetrating the skin (1) Oily fish(1) Fortified breakfast cereal(1)
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Consequences of the body being deficient in Vitamin D
Weakened Immune system (1) Rickets in young people (1) Low bone density(1)
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Explain why it is important to have a balanced diet?
Maintains ideal weight(1) Reduces the risk of obesity(1) and heart conditions(1) Reduces under nutrition(1) Boosts energy(1) Promotes fitness(1) Enhances fitness(1) Prevents disease(1) Maintains cholesterol(1) improves immunity(1)
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Normal ranges for BMI?
18.5-24.9 kg/m²
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Average resting pulse rate?
60-80 bpm
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Normal range for Peak Flow?
400-600 litres per minute
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Normal resting breathing rate?
15 breath per minute
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Average resting minute ventilation?
6 litres per minute
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Strengths of Height and Weight charts?
Based on standardised data. Easy to use as measuring height and weight can be carried out quickly. Monitors progress over time.
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Weaknesses of Height and Weight charts?
Doesn't take body build into account. Doesn't take fat to muscle ratio into account.
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What is BMI?
Body Mass Index - is used to indicate a person's weight in relation to their height.
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Strengths of BMI
Standardised measure(1) so an individual's score can be compared with population norms. Shows progress(1) Quick and easy(1)
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Limitations of BMI
Difficult to do the calculation required(1) doesn't take body build or fat to muscle ratio into account(1)
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What is pulse rate?
A measure of how fast the heart is beating(1)
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Strengths of using pulse rates
Standardised data(1) so comparisons can be made(1) easy to measure(1)
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Limitations of using pulse rates
Difficult to measure during exercise(1) equipment is required when measuring it during exercise(1) can be affected by other factors such as anxiety(1)
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Strengths of the peak flow meter
Simple enough to use without expert help(1) Asthma sufferers can check their condition(1) easily portable and readings can be taken quickly(1)
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Limitations of peak flow meter
limited in what it measures(1) doesn't measure fitness(1)
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What are control mechanisms designed to do?
keep the body's internal environmental constant.
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What mechanisms keep the body's internal environment constant?
homeostatic mechanisms
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What do homeostatic mechanisms use when controlling the internal environment?
Negative Feedback
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What is negative feedback?
It is a stabilising method which reduces increased activity and increases reduced activity.`
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Example of Negative Feedback
Blood Glucose - When blood sugar rises, receptors in the body sense a change . In turn, the control center (pancreas) secretes insulin into the blood effectively lowering blood sugar levels
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What will a system that uses negative feedback have?
a sensor that monitors (medulla in the brain) and an effector mechanism for changing the conditions.
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Which part of the brain controls the body's temperature?
Hypothalamus
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What is the hypothalamus?
Part of the brain that controls the ANS, including the sympathetic division. It detects temperature of the blood flowing through its tissues .
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What happens if the hypothalamus detects low temperature of the blood?
Triggers a sympathetic reaction that has the effect of reducing blood flow near the skin's surface
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What are the physiological effects of temperature change of the body?
Shivering, shaking, turning a paler colour, hair erection, muscle contraction to generate heat(shivering)
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What happens to the body when temperature drops lower than what it is capable of managing?
Hypothermia is contracted - symptoms include being confused and irrational as brain function is becoming impaired.
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Example of negative feedback
The body's response to low temperatures - as temperature falls, homeostatic mechanisms operate to conserve heat, increase insulation and generate more heat.
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How does negative feedback reduce temperature of the body when over heating?
dilation of blood vessels neart the skin, producing a flushed appearance. Sweating - sweat on the skin evaporates, taking heat from the body's surface.
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When is it beneficial for the body's temperature to rise above normal?
As an immune response when fighting infections.
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WHat can too high or too low internal body temperature cause?
Brain impairments
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Why does heart rate not maintain constant?
the need for tissues to be adequately supplied with oxygen and blood sugar. After or during illness and exercise.
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What are the group of muscle cells iun the wall of the heart which trigger the heart to beat?
Sinoatrial Node which acts as a natural pacemaker producing about 100 nerve impulses per minute.
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Explain the role of the ANS in terms of heart rate.
The sympathetic division of the ANS tends to raise heart rate in response to an increase in demand e.g. when exercising.
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How do homeostatic mechanisms increase heart rate?
By stimulating adrenal glands to release the hormone andrenaline, which then circulates in the blood and soon reaches the heart, where it stimulates an increase in the action of the sinoatrial node.
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Other than circulating in the blood, how does adrenaline increase heart rate?
Adrenaline acts as a neurotransmitter. Noradrenaline and adrenaline are released as neurotransmitters from nerve endings of the sympathetic nerves. These also contribute to an increase in heart rate.
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What does the parasympathetic division of the ANS tend to do in relation to heartbeat?
Slow it down via the vagus nerve which runs from the top of the spinal cord to the heart.
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What factors tend to produce an increase in activity in the sympathetic division of the ANS?
Fear, anxiety, anger or internal conditions such as low blood pressure and an increase in carbon dioxide levels in the blood.
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How does exercise increase heart rate?
Because it leads to increased cellular respiration , resulting in the uptake o more oxygen and the production of more carbon dioxide.
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High levels of carbon dioxide go together with low levels of oxygen and vice versa. True or False?
True
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What detects the level of carbon dioxide in the blood?
Respiratory centre in the brainstem
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If carbon dioxide levels rise what occurs to reduce them?
negative feedback mechanisms operate to reduce them.
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What do the negative feedback mechanisms in reducing carbon dioxide levels consist of ?
These mechanisms involve the sympathetic division of the ANS. The bronchi dilate, allowing a faster airflow into and out of the lungs
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Card 2

Front

Short term physiological effects for a female 65 year old with low VO2 max.

Back

Increased heart rate e.g. pulse (1) with increased stroke volume (1) increasing cardiac output with more blood flow to skeletal muscles (1). Increased ventilation(1) due to increasing CO2 concentrations in the blood (1). Sweating(1). Skin flushes(1)

Card 3

Front

How does exercise combat ageing?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Sources of Zinc

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Consequences of the body being deficient in Zinc

Back

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