health and social past paper q's

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explain what VO2 max measures and include the unit of measurement
VO2 max measures aerobic fitness in terms of the capacity to take in oxygen, transport it and use it in cellular respiration. the units of VO2 max are ml/kg/min. (millilitres of oxygen per kilo of body weight per minute)
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what is meant by aerobic fitness?
Aerobic fitness is the bodys ability to take in oxygen, transport it to cells and utilise it efficiently to be able to sustain work for long periods of high intense exercise. Aerobic exercise is work that is usually longer than 12 minutes.
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describe how the body will effectively use carbohydrates during exercise - refer to physiological processes in your answer
The body will digest the carbohydrate, the glucose will be transported to the cells through the blood where it will combine with oxygen to produce energy. glucose will be stored as glycogen, (long chains) in the liver and muscle cells
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name two functions of iron in the body and describe the effect of iron deficiency in the body
Iron is used for the transportation of oxygen around the body / for Haemoglobin count in blood / prevention of anaemia. deficiency : RBC's formed with insufficient haemoglobin / tired / blood not carry sufficient oxygen / muscles easily fatigued
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state two sources of iron
eggs / green leafy veg / liver kidney or heart / fortified breakfast cereals
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explain how regular exercise can contribute to the emotional and social well-being of individuals
emotionally : enhancing mood - stimulation of endorphins / helps raise confidence, especially if weight loss / reduce stress / provides opportunity to meet others / exercise with likeminded people / friendships / social support / develop social skill
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explain the benefits of warm-down programmes after exercise (refer to physiological processes)
stop suddenly / less risk of cramp / clearing the lactic acid from muscles / reduction of oxygen debt / maintaining higher metabolic rate cleared more quickly / prevents dizziness / caused from reduced blood pressure / prevents blood pooling
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discuss the extent to which regular exercise may help combat the effects of ageing (refer to physiological processes)
slows decline of effectiveness of BS / respiratory: helps maintain lung capacity / loss of strength: helps maintain metabolic rate / flexibility reduced : helps maintain bone density through calcium deposition / blood pressure + cholesterol reduced
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give one strength and one limitation of using BMI
standardised or easy to measure / does not differentiate between fat and muscle ratio
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name the system and the processes used to help the body maintain a stable environment
nervous system and the process is homeostasis
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give three other common barriers (apart from working long hours) to individuals taking part in regular exercise, for each one suggest one different way it might be overcome
costs (membership fees) - home workout DVD / skill level - use beginners class / location- walk or share lifts / family commitments - family membership or group sport
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for a person diagnosed with hypertension discuss how regular exercise might improve or regulate these conditions
improve arterial elasticity by stretching arterial muscle walls through constant change in blood pressure. reduces blood cholesterol (HDL:LDL) which reduces astherosclerosis / improves blood flow / reduces blood pressure
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outline a suitable exercise and diet programme that is safe for that person to take up
medical check/expert advice needed for safety/low intensity begin/small progression increasing demand/reduce intake of food/eat three balanced meals/ low impact walking etc/monitoring/minimum HI/concentrating on endurance/reduce calories increase ex
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for a person diagnosed with type 1 discuss how regular exercise might improve or regulate these conditions
help improve/regulate by using up carbs for energy / reduces insulin demand / make it easier to regulate blood sugar levels and less need for muscles to convert glucose to glycogen to be stored
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two functions of protein
growth or build muscle / maintain muscle / repair body tissue
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outline how a high protein diet would be effective when exercising regularly
protein is main component of muscle, therefore is needed to build and grow muscle / protein in muscle enables movement and muscles are vital to exercise / protein used to repair muscle
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two sources of protein
meat / fish / eggs / milk / cheese / beans / pulses
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explain the long term physiological effects of training regularly on a persons aerobic fitness
increase in maximum heart rate/increase in stroke volume means resting pulse rate and resting blood pressure reduces / arteries become more elastic / number of capillaries serving muscles increases/ increasing oxygen carrying capacity of blood
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explain the long term physiological effects of training regularly (continued)
surface area of lungs increases, improving lung capacity which increases rate of oxygen transfer into the blood / increase of red blood cells / raised metabolic rate / increase in muscles/increased flexibility/muscles stronger/reduce fat
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normal ranges for BMI
-18.5 - underweight / 18.5 - 24.9 - normal / 25 - 29.9 - overweight / 30 + - obese
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normal ranges for resting pulse rate
60-80
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normal ranges for peak flow
400-600 bpm
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how will exercising regularly help control a persons weight (physiological)
help to suppress appetite because reduces digestion - blood supply towards skeletal muscles/less risk of overeating+gaining weight as not stimulated by sight/smell of food/use up energy/neg energy equation/burn fat/store fat/ increase metabolic rate
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discuss the extent to which regular exercise may help combat the effects of ageing (refer to physiological processes)
blood pressure reduced reduces risk of clotting thrombosis or hypertension / lower cholesterol reduces atherosclerosis / reduces protein depletion in muscles so maintains flexibility and strength of muscles
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two functions of calcium
construction of bones and teeth / muscle contraction / nerve transmission / blood clotting
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effects of calcium deficiency
causes rickets / weakened bones or bone deformities especially in the legs and spine / lone bone density causing osteoporosis or more risk of fracturing bones / impairment of muscles
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sources of calcium
milk / cheese / greek yoghurt / green leafy veg
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why is it important to see GP before starting exercise?
for expert medical advice/to check for underlying health problems which exercise may worsen/ check if fit enough to cope with the demands / to help determine his personal exercise limits and prevent over exertion and injury
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social benefits of exercise
in a group or team, opportunity to interact socially, maintain existing friendships or make new friends / develop social skills / social support/ meet like-minded people
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psychological benefits
help reduce effect of stress as exercise results in fatigue which leads to relaxation / improve concentration span helping at work/ help sleep better makes him less anxious and tired / feel good - endorphins / sporting achievements / weight loss
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identify three units when VO2 max is measured
ml / min / kg
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short term physiological effects of exercising
blood more acidic as oxygen used up quickly, level of CO2 increases / increases ventilation/ as V increases, breath through mouths and deeper breaths / heart rate increases and stroke volume increases - increase blood pressure
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short term physiological effects of exercising cont
blood vessels serving muscles dilate / body responds to heat through sweating / skin flushed as blood vessels near skin dilate / more blow flow to muscles
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sources of zinc
meat / pulses / eggs / shellfish / peas / beans / cereals
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consequences of zinc deficiency
delayed body growth and development / loss of appetite / loss of hair / skin inflammation / weakened immune system / poor wound healing
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strength and limitation of perceived exertion scales
strength: gives overall perception of effort , shows progression in effort levels and helps safety as lowers risk of over exertion / limitation: subjective measure, perceptions may vary, cant make comparisons and does not measure fitness
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why warming up is so important (physiological processes)
prepares body for greater exertion / heats up muscles, increasing their elasticity and reducing likelihood of soreness / gently raise pulse / increases rate of ventilation and respiration - increasing the oxygen delivery to muscles
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why warming up is so important (physiological processes)
reduces oxygen deficit at the start/ increases cellular respiration / blood vessels in muscles dilate / mentally prepares body so concentration reduces risk of accidents
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suggest principles of good practice and say why they are important
medical checks - prevent over exertion, prevent injury or find any underlying problems / wear appropriate clothing or footwear - to prevent injury, keep warm or prevent over heating, allow sweating, comfort, freedom of movement
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suggest principles of good practice and say why they are important cont
appropriate equipment - prevent injury or avoid accidents / drink fluids - avoid dehydration and avoid fainting
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sources of vitamin A
liver / red meat / oily fish / eggs / green leafy veg /carrots
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function of vitamin A
body or cell growth / bones or teeth maintenance / skin / eyes / aids night vision
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name and outline two types of muscular strngth
maximum strength: greatest force a muscle can exert in a single force / dynamic strength: ability of a muscle to contract at speed while overcoming resistance
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name four diseases a person might face if they do not exercise regularly
type 2 diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, stroke, heart attack
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how can atherosclerosis be prevented by exercise
affects type of cholesterol produced LDL's and HDL's, during exercise more HDL's are produced which protect against disease. It also uses up the cholesterol in the blood (reduced risk of heart attack and thrombosis because of embolism)
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how can hypertension be prevented by exercise
helps keep arteries in good condition - remains elasticity due to repeated changes in blood pressure - therefore the heart does not have to overwork
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how can type 2 diabetes be prevented by regular exercise
helps to reduce excess body weight by using energy from fat and prevents any more glucose being stored as fat. helps a person control the amount of sugar in their blood and controls need for insulin
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how can conditions be prevented by exercise
exercise leads to weight loss and control of weight which has an effect on conditions e.g. osteoarthritis, hernia
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how can osteoporosis be helped by regular exercise
can delay onset as weight bearing exercises stimulate the bone growth. this can reduce the risk falling as it strengthens muscles
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how can type 1 diabetes be helped by regular exercise
helps people regulate the concentration of glucose in the blood
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how can a person fit regular exercise in to their busy work / family life
walk to work / go to gym before work / attend exercise class in lunch / walk children to school / do exercise with children e.g. swimming / play electronic exercise games such as wii fit with children / exercise DVDs at home / gym that has creche
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identify whether these are vitamins or mineral: iodine, folic acid, riboflavin, zinc
iodine - mineral / folic acid - vitamin / riboflavin - vitamin / zinc - mineral
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sources of vitamin D
fortified breakfast cereals, exposure to sun, liver, egg yolk, fortified margarine, fish
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functions of vitamin D
required for absorption of calcium / growth and repair of bones and teeth / strong bones and teeth / maintain bone density / helps build healthy immune system
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consequences of vitamin D deficiency
rickets / poor bone development / lower bone density / Osteomalacia in adults / increased risk of fractures / painful joints / weakened immune system / tiredness
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why is it important to have a balanced diet
provides right combination of food and nutrients for optimum health/helps fight diseases and infections/helps immune system function well/reduces risk of chronic diseases e.g. diabetes/helps maintain weight/reduces risk of obesity and under nutrition
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why is it important to have a balanced diet cont
avoid deficiency diseases/helps promote mental health and concentration/maintains healthy cholesterol/provides energy/promotes healthy inside body e.g. digestive system and promotes health outside e.g. skin and hair
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strengths and limitations of using pulse rate when measuring fitness
one of the best indicators of fitness, easy to measure, doesnt require any equipment to measure, standardised so can make comparisons/ limitations: difficult when moving, hard to locate, when moving require equipment and can be affected by other fact
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control mechanisms ensure environment in body stays the same during exercise - describe how respiratory rate is controlled
controlled by homeostatic mechanisms/controlled by brain/respiratory centre in the brain/detects level of carbon dioxide in blood - negative feedback mechanisms operate to reduce it
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control mechanisms ensure environment in body stays the same during exercise - describe how respiratory rate is controlled
/sympathetic division of automatic nervous system controls respiration- bronchi dilate and allows a faster airflow in+out of lungs/tidal volume increases/ventilation rate increases/increase rate of transport of gases/detect level of co2 back to norma
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functions of carbohydrates
energy supply / stamina / endurance / muscle contractions/ less fatigue during exercise / prevents protein being used as energy
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two sources of carbohydrates
potatoes / rice / pasta/ cereals / chocolate / bread
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Card 2

Front

what is meant by aerobic fitness?

Back

Aerobic fitness is the bodys ability to take in oxygen, transport it to cells and utilise it efficiently to be able to sustain work for long periods of high intense exercise. Aerobic exercise is work that is usually longer than 12 minutes.

Card 3

Front

describe how the body will effectively use carbohydrates during exercise - refer to physiological processes in your answer

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

name two functions of iron in the body and describe the effect of iron deficiency in the body

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

state two sources of iron

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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