Unit 4 15 marker plans: Feminism, Multiculturalism and Nationalism

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Why is the patriarchy important to feminist analysis? (2015, 2013,
Patriarchy refers to the domination of men in society. In its strict translation it means rule of the father.
Used to explain the power relationship between men and women Gender, like social class, race or religion,
is a politically significant social cleavage. Millett described `patriarchal gov' as an institution whereby half of
the populace which is female is controlled by the other half which is male'... two fold.. Men dominate women,
older men dominate younger..' Patriarchy is a hierarchic society, characterized by both sexual and
generational oppression.. Radical feminists view patriarchy as being the core of all social and political
Lib fem use it to draw attention to unequal distribution of rights and entitlements the face of patriarchy is the
underrepresentation of women in senior positions in public life. Rad fem See patriarchy as systematic,
institutionalized, pervasive form of male power that is rooted in the family. Patriarchy thus expresses the belief
that he pattern of male domination and female subordination that characterizes society at large is, essentially,
a reflection of the power structures that operate within domestic life.
Socialists feminists use it to analyse capitalism Emphasize the economic aspects of patriarchy, in their view
it operates in tandem with capitalism, gender subordination and class inequality being interlinked systems of
oppression. Some reject patriarchy and believe gender inequality is the consequence of class system
capitalism. Engels, Matriarchal society etc.
On what grounds have the radical feminists claimed that `the personal is the political' (2014, 2012, 2010
Concerned that the divide upholds sexual inequality.
Public/private divide helps to domesticate women Friedan in the `feminist mystique' argued that the divide
creates a cultural myth that women seek security + fulfillment in domestic life, the myth seeks to discourage
women from entering employment, politics and other forms of public life. She highlights what she called `the
problem with no name' = the sense of despair + deep unhappiness many women experience cos they're
confined to a domestic existence unable to gain fulfillment in career etc. Figes in all walks of life women are
portrayed as inferior + subordinate to men, stereotype of femininity imposed on women by men.
Helps to legitimise the patriarchy Millett described the patriarchy as a social constraint running through all
political, social + economic structures. It socially conditions women and men to accepting different roles in
society and encourages them to conform to gender identities. Greer argues that female liberation requires a
sexual revolution as women are currently conditioned to passive sexual roles + an overthrow of the structures
in society and a move towards an androgynous society. If politics takes place only within the public sphere,
the role of women and the question of sexual equality are issues of little/no political importance. Women are
effectively excluded from politics.
Helps to conceal oppression Rad Fem argue Libs advance institutional reform whilst ignoring the
interpersonal power of men over women. Radicals such as the Redstockings identify male supremacy as the
oldest, most basic form of discrimination with all other forms of exploitation simply being expressions of male
supremacy. Argue for fem to develop CC, sexist foundations need to be publicly exposed in the public and
private. Patriarchy should be challenged through `consciousnessraising' ­ strategies to remodel social
identity and challenge cultural inferiority by an emphasis on pride, selfworth and selfassertion.

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Why is the distinction between sex and gender crucial to feminist analysis (2013, 2011
A woman's physical and anatomical makeup suits her to a subordinate and domestic role in society `biology is
destiny'. Linked to Essentialism
Biological differences = natural and unalterable The biological factor that is most frequently linked to women's
social position is their capacity to bear children. Feminists insist that in no way do such biological facts
necessarily disadvantage women nor determine their social destiny.…read more

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Link female emancipation to radical social change Orthodox Marxists: Primary of class politics over sexual
politics. Class exploitation seen as a deeper and more significant process than sexual oppression. Women's
emancipation will be a byproduct of a social revolution in which capitalism is overthrown and replaced by
socialism. `Class war' more important than `sex war'. Rowbotham need to consider oppression culturally.…read more

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Personal is not the political Liberal feminists maintain this distinction as they see this as important for maintaining
the freedom of the individual. Link to Rawls,.. The right and the good.. Camille Paglia attacked the tendency for
feminists to portray women as victims ­ women should take greater responsibility for their own sexual and personal
conduct. Use `new female power' principle impediments to women's social advancement are psychological rather
than political.…read more

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Belief in self determination The nation state is a sovereign political association within which citizenship and
nationality overlap. The nation state embodies the goal of political freedom giving expression to the principle of
national selfdetermination, democracy and self governmental can therefore only operate within a nation state.
Woodrows 14 Points, Wilson's ideas were clearly based on the liberal nationalist belief in universal nations self
determination. It was concerned with guaranteeing the rights of the small nations.…read more

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Nations can be defined culturally/ethnically Some nationalists see the state as consisting of a unique group
of people that form a homogeneous society racial characteristics are a useful and obvious way of identifying
them. In general terms however, a race is not necessarily a nation, furthermore nations can contain more
than one racial grouping as is the case with the Chinese and the English. E.g. chinese nation, their racial
characteristic provide a superficial identification.…read more

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States and Nations often overlap to form nation states A NationState can be defined as a sovereign
political association within which civic identity and nationality overlap, one nation within a single state.
Nations are complex phenomena that are determined by cultural, political and psychological factors. States
claim to make decisions in the public interest and exercise authority through permanent institutions. E.g.…read more

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Western example.
Response to imperialism AntiColonial movements are attracted to socialism for a number of reason.
Socialism embodies values of community and cooperation well established in traditional preindustrial
societies. Socialism provides an analysis of inequality through which the colonial experience can be
understood and challenged. For Lenin, imperialism was the highest stage of capitalism, imperialism is an
economic phenomenon, a quest for capitalist countries to pursue profit, cheap labour and raw materials. The
class struggle became colonial.…read more

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Toleration both hold a commitment to toleration MC promotes the core liberal values of tolerance by
tolerating all cultures. In turn, such tolerance promotes civic unity the idea that a more tolerant society will
be a more peaceful and united one as cultures will not feel under attack or oppressed but instead mutually
respect one another. Lib are difference blind, treats factors such as culture etc as irrelevant and argues
people should be evaluated as morally autonomous individuals.…read more

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Prevent harm and oppression without the structures in place many would trivialise or ignore the cultural identity of
minority groups.…read more


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