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Distinguish between nationalism and racialism. (JAN 2010)
Nationalism, broadly, is the belief that the nation is the central principle of political organisation.
The nation is a collection of people bound together by shared values and traditions, common
language, religion and history, and usually occupying the same geographical…

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of a different question, usually one about the definition of the nation and the definition of the
state. In these cases, the issue of the defence of the nationstate tended to be ignored. On the
other hand, those who provided a clear and full definition of the nationstate at the…

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This answer begins with an effective definition of the nation state. It then provides grounds for support from
the conservative and liberal positions, and at the end briefly from the anticolonial view point. However, the
liberal position it not fully developed, lacking an explanation of the importance of self determination,…

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Distinguish between the nation and the state, and explain why the two are often confused. (JAN

Nations are cultural entities, groups of people who share the same language, religion, traditions and so on.
However, as no nation is culturally homogeneous, nations are ultimately defined subjectively by their
members through…

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This is an excellent response to the question. As well as highlighting a range of features that defi ne,
respectively, political nationalism and cultural nationalism, clear distinctions are made. The response
received 14 marks out of 15.

Explain the key features of conservative nationalism. (JUNE 2011)
Conservative nationalism has a…

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conservatism and tended to ignore the nationalism aspect of the question, writing, for instance, about issues
such as the organic society without applying it to the nation. More successful responses, however, were
able to highlight a range of distinguishing features of conservative nationalism, including its emphasis on
promoting social and…

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This is a good response to the question, which received 12 marks out of 15. It highlights a number of
features of conservative nationalism its tendency to develop in established nationstates, to promote social
cohesion, to emphasise emotion rather than reason, and to have a backwardlooking character. However,
the analysis…

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Nations and races are nevertheless commonly confused, particularly by rightwing or chauvinist
nationalists, for whom the nation is an exclusive and organically defined entity. This, then, leads to
an emphasis on ethnic or cultural purity that encourages such nationalists to conflate nations and
races, arguing that the key determinant of…


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