Revision Guide - Multiculturalism

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Get the most from this book
Everyone has to decide his or her own revision strategy, You can also keep track of your revision by ticking off
but it is essential to review your work, learn it and test each topic heading in the book. You may find it helpful
your understanding. These Revision Notes will help to add your own notes as you work through each topic.
you to do that in a planned way, topic by topic. Use
this book as the cornerstone of your revision and don't My revision planner
hesitate to write in it -- personalise your notes and
check your progress by ticking off each section as you Unit 3B Introducing political ideologies
Revised Tested Exam
revise. 1 Liberalism ready
7 Core themes of liberalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8 The liberal view of government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10 Classical liberalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11 Modern liberalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13 Liberal views of equality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tick to track your progress
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14 Liberalism and democracy -- how compatible? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15 The influence of liberalism on other major philosophies . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Use the revision planner on pages 4 and 5 to plan your 2 Conservatism
17 Traditional conservatism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
revision, topic by topic. Tick each box when you have:
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19 The New Right . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Liberalism and democracy -- how
1 Liberalism
23 Comparisons and contrasts within conservatism
l revised and understood a topic
as a whole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
compatible?
3 Socialism
l tested yourself 25
26
Core principles of socialism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Revolutionary socialism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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How compatible?
28 Evolutionary socialism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Revised
l practised the exam questions and gone online to 4 Anarchism
Although the political socialisation of most Western students leads them
Liberal democracy -- a form
check your answers and complete the quick quizzes 34 to Core
assume that `liberal
principles ofdemocracy
anarchism ' is
many forms of democracy are not, in fact, liberal (e.g. direct democracy,
36 andDiverse theories of anarchism
the only valid form of democracy,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .of
. . . representative
. .based
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . on
. . . . free,
. . . .
. .government
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
fair and
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
the various one-party systems such as communist democracy, third- competitive elections, pluralism,
37 world
Collectivist
democracy anarchism
and fascist-totalitarian
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .democracy). Moreover,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .early
. . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
constitutionalism, the rule of law,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
38 liberals were downright
Individualist hostile to
anarchism . . . .the
. . . . .idea
. . . . . . of
. . . .democracy
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . even
. . . . . . . in its
. . . . . . . fairly
. . . . . . . . . .civil
. . . . . liberties
. . . . . . . . . . .and . a . . .(free-
. . . . . . . or
. . . .mixed-)
. .
38 limited
Other form of `one
visions person,
of one vote'. society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
the stateless market economy.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
39 Typical mistake
Anarchism versus Marxism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
40 Some students versus
Anarchism make the mistake of .asserting
liberalism that liberalism is
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
unequivocally in favour of democracy. This takes too narrow a view of
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
41 both
Anarchist strategies
liberalism and tactics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
and democracy.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Features to help you succeed Liberals' wariness of democracy
All liberals are wary of democracy because:
Revised
l Democracy is collectivist.
l Democracy implies majoritarianism -- `tyranny of the majority'.
l Democracy may therefore undermine individual sovereignty and
minority rights.
l Democracy may give a voice to the uneducated, the ignorant and the
propertyless.
Examiner's tips and summaries l Democracy may threaten property rights.
l Democracy implies equality over freedom.
Expert tips are given throughout the book to help you polish your exam technique in order to maximise your
l Democracy may generate growing state intervention and control.
l Democracy may limit economic freedom and growth.
chances in the exam. The summaries provide a quick-check bullet list for each topic.
l Democracy may produce dangerously powerful demagogues (e.g.
Hitler). answers and quick quizzes at www.therevisionbutton.co.uk/myrevisionnotes
4 Exam practice
l All power, even `people power', tends to corrupt innately self-seeking
humans.
180893_01_A2 Political_01-80.indd 4 17/10/12 9:16 AM
Typical mistakes NowLiberals'
testsupport
yourself
for democracy Revised
However, modern liberals favour democracy because:
The author identifies the typical mistakes candidates These short,
Power knowledge-based
should be based
l upon legitimate authority.
Consent is necessary for such legitimacy.
l
questions provide the
make and explains how you can avoid them. first step
The in testing your learning. Answers are at the
people can be
l a
government and state.
constraining influence upon the power of
back Democracy
of the book.
may help to ensure political representation.
l
Democracy may enhance pluralism -- diffusion of power between
l
competing groups.
14 Exam practice answers and quick quizzes at www.therevisionbutton.co.uk/myrevisionnotes
Definitions and key words 180893_01_A2 Political_1-80.indd 14 14/12/12 5:50 PM
Clear, concise definitions of essential key terms are Revision activities
provided on the page where they appear. These activities will help you to understand each
Key words from the specification are highlighted in topic in an interactive way.
bold for you throughout the book.
Exam practice Online
Practice exam questions are provided for each topic. Go online to check your answers to the exam
Use them to consolidate your revision and practise questions and try out the extra quick quizzes at
your exam skills. www.therevisionbutton.co.uk/myrevisionnotes
180893_01_A2 Political_1-80.indd 3 02/01/13 6:47 PM

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My revision planner
Unit 3B Introducing political ideologies
Revised Tested Exam
1 Liberalism ready
7 Core themes of liberalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .…read more

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Unit 4B Other ideological traditions
Revised Tested Exam
5 Nationalism and racialism ready
44Nationalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .…read more

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Countdown to my exams
6­8 weeks to go One week to go
l Start by looking at the specification -- make sure l Try to fit in at least one more timed practice of
you know exactly what material you need to an entire past paper and seek feedback from your
revise and the style of the examination. Use the teacher, comparing your work closely with the
revision planner on pages 4 and 5 to familiarise mark scheme.
yourself with the topics.…read more

Page 5

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Multiculturalism
The exam specification describes multiculturalism as `an `area' of Multiculturalism -- the policies or
ideological disagreement rather than, necessarily, a coherent ideology in processes whereby the distinctive
its own right'. These notes aim to outline and explain the different usages identities of the cultural groups
of the term and the different political attitudes -- positive and negative within a society are maintained or
-- towards it. supported.…read more

Page 6

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Origins and development of
8 Multiculturalism
multiculturalism
Development Revised
l Multiculturalism first emerged as an ideological viewpoint in the
1960s' US black consciousness movement. It often took the form of
`ethnocultural nationalism' -- a form of nationalism with a particularly
proud sense of ethnic and cultural roots -- and it sought to challenge
economic, social and often racial disadvantage and discrimination. This
political assertion of minority cultural identities was quite new.…read more

Page 7

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Identity politics
8 Multiculturalism
Revised
Identity politics perceives people in terms of their cultural characteristics
Identity politics -- the pursuit of
and stresses the importance of factors such as language, religion and
group interests defined by collective
ethnicity in shaping personal and social identity. It may go as far as
identity and common experience
`particularism': the belief that cultural differences between people and (for example, of culture, race or
societies are more important than what they have in common -- a gender).…read more

Page 8

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There are fears that it may also undermine social stability or political
8 Multiculturalism
unity. For both of these reasons, conservatives are generally hostile to Examiner's tip
multiculturalism because they believe that humans are psychologically Most essay answers should include,
insecure creatures who need a strong sense of common cultural precisely define and explain all
identity, which is also a prerequisite for social order and stability. the features of multiculturalism
described here.
Tested
Now test yourself
5 Define `post-colonialism' and give two examples.…read more

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Pluralist multiculturalism
8 Multiculturalism
Revised
Pluralist multiculturalism goes further than liberal multiculturalism in
accepting the equal validity and legitimacy of liberal, non-liberal and
illiberal ideas and values, though they may be incompatible or even
incomparable -- a moral pluralism which implies a `post-liberal' stance
Pluralism -- diverse and competing
where liberal ideas and values can no longer claim moral supremacy
political groups, cultural beliefs or
(John Gray, Liberalism, 1995).…read more

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Critical perspectives on multiculturalism
8 Multiculturalism
Conservatism Revised
Conservatives believe that security-seeking individuals and a stable society
require cultural homogeneity. Multiculturalism is therefore a threat to Assimilation -- absorption of a
social cohesion and majority interests, and `diversity within unity' is a minority immigrant group and its
adoption of the cultural norms of
myth. Assimilation (the absorption of minority groups into the host
the host group.
culture) and restrictions on immigration, or even repatriation, are favoured
by conservatives.…read more

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