Theme 2 Notes

Hi there, these are my personal notes I made specifically for myself a few years ago. I hope these can help others. The notes may not make a whole lot a sense as they were designed to be short and to the point.

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  • Created by: aayisha
  • Created on: 08-03-15 12:53
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Geography Theme 2- Physical processes and the relationship between people and the
environment
Weather and climate
Weather: Daily variation in the atmosphere
Rainfall and temperature make up weather
Climate: average conditions in the atmosphere over a long period of time
Wind direction/ force , sunshine, visibility, temperature, precipitation and atmospheric
pressure
Pressure system: large mass of air having similar air pressure characteristics
Graphs: bar- rainfall, line- temperature
Weather maps- Synoptic charts: air pressure shows low/high pressure areas.
Pressure in mb- millibars
Low pressure- depression- bars together- wet weather
High pressure- anticyclones ­ bars far out- dry hot or cold weather
Feature Depression Anticyclone
Air pressure low High
Vertical air movement Rising Falling
Wind strength Strong Weak
Wind circulation Anti- clockwise Clockwise

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Geography Theme 2- Physical processes and the relationship between people and the
environment
Case Study
Brazilian climate
Altitude: have mountains in some areas- relief rainfall
Latitude: parts on equator
Prevailing wind: Over Atlantic Ocean picking up moisture
Ocean currents: ocean `conveyer belt' brings warm and cold currents.
Distance from sea: warm most of the year. Sea holds heat.…read more

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Geography Theme 2- Physical processes and the relationship between people and the
environment
3) Large clouds are 4) Any moister in the air 4) Warm air Is forced to
formed evaporates rise, further
4) Heavy rain storms condensation and rain
occur
Global pressure systems
Climate zones: Tropical, polar, desert, arid, Mediterranean
Anti-cyclone
Case study
European heat wave- high pressure water event- summer anticyclone
Location: August 2003, Western Europe including Spain, UK, Germany and France
Causes and characteristics: air in the anticyclone sinks, air descends, warms…read more

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Geography Theme 2- Physical processes and the relationship between people and the
environment
Fertile topsoil as burnt and into river- poor quality of water
Drinking water supplies reduced so hosepipe ban occurred
Livestock died due to heat crops failed
Some railway tracks buckled, underground- suffocating, roads melted, water level low.…read more

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Geography Theme 2- Physical processes and the relationship between people and the
environment
Air rises faster and faster trying to fill low pressure by drawing more air
As the storm moves over ocean picks more warm air
Speed increase as more air is sucked in
Eye has calm winds surrounded by spinning vortex. Reaches land quickly dissolves as
no air to fuel.
Tropical storm around equator- hurricane
Case study
Hurricane Katrina 2005- low pressure
Location: over Atlantic Ocean. Hit the Bahamas and crossed southern Florida.…read more

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Geography Theme 2- Physical processes and the relationship between people and the
environment
Droughts
Extended period of time during which an area receives less rain than normal.
Not actual figure but a relative one
People and ecosystems have to cope with much less than usual
What causes drought:
Longer period of anticyclones lead to reduction of rainfall
Increase demand of water
Water may be transferred over the border or through pipes and canals from area with lots of
water to areas with little water.…read more

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Geography Theme 2- Physical processes and the relationship between people and the
environment
Water surplus and deficit: Lesotho has plentiful water for the population. Gauteng has little.
How does the LHWP work?
Construction of 6 major dams
Country Advantage Disadvantage
Lesotho Provides work Lesotho struggles with sanitation and clean
Help economy which will help water supplies.…read more

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Geography Theme 2- Physical processes and the relationship between people and the
environment
Not large enough to have negative impact on drainage basin= environmentally
sustainable
Techniques used:
Intermediate technology:
Large scale water transfer schemes not always used
NGOs and the government such as Water Aid set up small schemes
Vegetable patches filled with organic matter which retains water
Edges of beds are reinforced with stone to prevent erosion and recharge ground
water
A treadle pump pumps grey water up the vegetable plot
Water collected from…read more

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Geography Theme 2- Physical processes and the relationship between people and the
environment
2) Air masses: large areas of same characteristics of temp, humidity and pressure
3) Ocean currents: constant circulation of warm water from tropics vice versa. Air masses
pick passing cold currents will be stable and little rain. Warm currents unstable.
4) Topography/ Landforms: large mountain areas will result in rain shadows behind. Air
masses colder as they rise.
5) Latitude: sun rays concentrated at equator- small solar footprint.…read more

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Geography Theme 2- Physical processes and the relationship between people and the
environment
Biomes
Larger ecosystems. Large geographical area of distinctive plants and animals which are adapted to
that environment. Climate and geography determines type of biome of the region.
Biomes are large-scale ecosystems defined by abiotic (Non living) or inorganic
factors.…read more

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