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External Factors in achievement
Cultural Deprivation (inadequate socialisation): intellectual development Douglas,
language, Bernstein and attitudes and values Douglas
Material Deprivation: housing, diet and health Howard&Wilkinson , cost of education
Cultural, economic and social capital Bourdieu
Selection by mortgage Leech&Campos
Marketization (types of choosers) Gerwitz

Criticisms of cultural deprivation:

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Swot/Gay labelling Epstein&Francis
Gender identity shaped in socialisation Norman
Gender subject images
Peer pressure
Gendered career opportunities
Teacher's discipline and labels Byrne
The male gaze
Double standards

The role of education

Social Solidarity and Teaching Specialist Skills Durkheim
Meritocracy Parsons
School teaches us principles of society
Role Allocation Davis&Moore…

Page 3

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Tripartite system (grammar, modern, technical)
The Comprehensive System
Legitimises 'myth of meritocracy' as entry is based on background, not ability
League tables
Funding formula Ball&Whitty
The myth of Parentocracy Ball

New Labour policies
More resources to deprived areas
Aim Higher (unrepresented minorities)
EMA payments
Free school meals


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