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AS Sociology Revision Notes- SCLY1
Contents
Theories
Functionalism
Marxism
Feminism
New Right
Marriage
Divorce
Cohabitation
Roles within the Household
Domestic violence
Family Diversity
Childhood
21st Century Childhood
Demography
Birth Rate
Fertility Rate
Migration Rate
Death Rate
State Policies

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Theories

Functionalism - Sees that everything in the world has a function or a purpose in society and
explains things in society according to this.
Macro-Consensus theory
Family is the `Heart of Society'
Everyone in society benefits from the family

Murdock (1949)
Sample of 250
Claimed the Nuclear family was…

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Marxism
Karl Marx
Focuses mainly on the economic system
Macro-Conflict Theory
Capitalism has two main classes in society:
o Bourgeoisie (Ruling Class)
o Proletariat (Working Class)

Bourgeoisie benefit from society
Proletariat get less than they deserve and are exploited by the bourgeoisie
Marxists argue that the bourgeoisie also control other…

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All societies have been founded on patriarchy
Key division in society is between men and women
Men are the enemy and are the source of women's oppression and exploitation
Women are confined to limited roles with in the family home sexual division of labour
Nuclear family only meets the needs…

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Marriage DECLINE
1972 the highest number of couples to get married since WWII (1943) 480,000
Due to the baby boom of the 1950's
The average number of marriages in England and Wales went into decline 2005 ­ 244,710

Possible reasons for decline in marriage:
o Secularisation
o Liberal views to…

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The ONS suggest cohabiting couples are the fastest growing family type in the UK, around
2.2 million families are cohabiting couples with or without children.
This has grown by 65% since 1997.

New Right

Argue that cohabitation is less stable than marriage.
Morgan (2000) claimed that cohabiting couples are less…

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Ann Oakley (Feminist)
'In only a small number of marriages are the husband notably domesticated... home and
children are the woman's primary responsibility.'
Referring to the triple shift, a women who works and then does the housework and child
care.
Mckee and Bell (1986)
Men's masculine identity is threatened by…

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AO2- can psychological affect the child, see as acceptable behaviour carry it out in education
institution.
Women policed into her role within the family, supporting her husband
Helps the equilibrium of society
Marxism
Keeping a women in her place, in the home - Bringing up the next generation.
Marxist Feminists…

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Family Diversity

Household ­ when a group of people live together under one roof and share living accommodation.
Family ­ is a group of people who function together as a social unit and that may or may not be
biological related.
Different family types:
Nuclear family
Empty Nest
Extended Family…

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21st Century Childhood


Postman (1994)
Argues childhood is disappearing
Television gives children access to the adult world
`Social Blurring' little distinction between adults and children.

Phillips (1997)
Argues that popular culture has encouraged girls to embrace a sexual identity at a young
age.

Brooks (2001)
Criticises Postman
Adults taking control…

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