AQA Sociology: SCLY2 Education and Research Methods

Learning all of it got me an A :)

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Someone.
  • Created on: 22-08-12 14:20
Preview of AQA Sociology: SCLY2 Education and Research Methods

First 525 words of the document:

External Factors (class differences)
1a) Cultural Deprivation
Intellectual Development: development of thinking and reasoning skills. Theorists would
argue that many WC homes lack educational books, toys and activities that would help
stimulate a child's intellectual development. Douglas WC pupils scored lower on test of
ability, as their parents are less likely to support their children's intellectual development.
Bernstein and Young mothers choose toys that influence intellectual development.
Criticism: WC may not be able to afford these toys etc.
Language: children fail to develop necessary language skills and grow up incapable of
abstract thinking and unable to use language to explain, describe, enquire and compare.
Restricted & Elaborated code Bernstein. MC have an advantage as the elaborated code
is used by teachers, text books and exams. Also MC pupils are already fluent speakers
(socialisation) so they `feel at home' in school and are more likely to succeed. Criticism:
Bernstein describes WC speech inadequate.
Attitudes and Values: Parents attitudes and values are a key factor affecting educational
achievement. Douglas WC parents place less value on education. Feinstein the lack of
interest is more important than financial hardship or factors within school. Many WC
subcultures have different goals, beliefs, attitudes and values from the rest of society.
Hyman WC subculture is a selfimposed barrier to educational success. Sugerman
Fatalism, Collectivism, Immediate Gratification, Presenttime Orientation. WC children
internalise the beliefs and values of their subculture through the socialisation process
meaning underachievement.
Compensatory Education: Policy designed to tackle the problem of CD by providing extra
resources to school and communities in deprived areas. E.g. Sure Start, Education Action
Zones etc. Criticism: Don't see the real cause of underachievement (poverty and material
Criticisms: Keddie CD is a myth and blames victims. A child cannot be deprived of their
own culture they are just culturally different. Troyna and Williams teachers have a
`speech hierarchy' where MC speech is highest. Blackstone and Mortimore parents attend
fewer parent evenings as they may work longer hours/less regular hours or put off by
school's MC atmosphere. Also may not help their children's progress as they lack the
Studies show that WC children are more likely to leave school from the age of 16 and are
less likely to go on to sixth form and university. Also workingclass children are more likely to
start school unable to read, and are more likely to fall behind in reading, writing and number
1b) Material Deprivation
Referred to poverty and lack of material necessities (housing/income).
Stats 32% of WC students were considering moving out of the family home to attend
university. 90% of failing schools are in deprived areas. 33% of those receiving free school
meals got 5 or more A*C GCSE grades. 90% of `failing' schools are located in deprived
Housing overcrowded housing means less space to do work, play, sleep etc, and greater
risk of accidents.

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Diet and health lower intakes of energy, vitamins and minerals. Poor nutrition > weaker
immune system > lowering children's energy levels > get ill easier (poor attendance at
school). WC children are more likely to have behavioural or emotional problems.
Financial Support WC children lack equipment and miss out on school trips. They also
make do with handmedowns (results in being stigmatised/bullied). Children living in
poverty take on jobs (baby sitting, cleaning, paper rounds) which has a negative impact on
their school work.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

Their findings support the interactionist view that children of different class background are
labelled differently. They argue that the negative labelling of the WC is also the result of
inequalities in wider society.
2b) SelfFulfilling Prophecy
A prediction that comes true because it has been made. Step 1: Teacher labels pupil and
makes predictions. Step 2: Teacher treats the pupil accordingly.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Marketisation is a policy that introduces market forces of supply and demand into areas
run by the state. Marketisation has brought in Funding formula (giving a school the same
amount of funds for each pupil), Exam League Tables (ranking schools based on their
exam performance), Competition among schools to attract pupils.
AC Economy: Schools need to achieve a good league table position to attract pupils and
funding. However, this widens the class gap in achievement.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

Black culture is less cohesive and
less resistant to racism. Thus they have low selfesteem and underachieve.
Asian families: Driver and Ballard: they bring educational benefits as the parents have
more positive attitudes towards education, higher aspirations and are therefore more
supportive. Lupton: respectful behaviour towards adults was expected from children, and
had a knockon effect in schools. Khan: parents are `stress ridden', bound by tradition, and
Criticisms: Driver: ignores positive effects of ethnicity on achievement.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Asian pupils: Teachers assumed that they would have a poor grasp of English and left
them out of class discussions or used simplistic childish language. They also felt
isolated when teachers mispronounced their names or teachers expressed disapproval
of their customs.
4b) Pupil Responses and Subcultures
Fuller: Study of a group of black girls in year 11. Found that the girls conformed as far as
school work was concerned.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

These changes affect girl's attitudes to education. Such as: the increase
in female loneparent families may mean more women need to take on the breadwinner
role. This creates a new adult role model for girls the financially independent. To achieve
this, women need wellpaid jobs, and thus good qualifications. Also the increase in
divorce rates suggests that girls can make their own living.
Employment: 1970 Equal Pay Act (illegal to pay women less for the same job as men), Sex
Discrimination Act.…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

This may lead to
selffulfilling prophecy in which successful interactions with teachers promote girls
selfesteem and raise the achievement levels.
Challenging stereotypes in the curriculum: Sexist images have been removed from learning
materials. This may help raise girl's success levels more positive images of what women
can do.
Selection and league tables: Girls are more likely to be recruited from good schools as
they are more attractive to schools. This may create a selffulfilling prophecy.…read more

Page 9

Preview of page 9

Here's a taster:

Gendered subject images: The gender image that a subject `gives off' affects who
will want to choose it. For example, science teachers are more likely to be men, examples
that they use draw on boy's interests and experiences, and boys tend to dominate the
laboratory. Computer studies are seen as a masculine subject as it involves working with
machines, and the way it is taught is offputting to girls. However, in singlesex schools
they are more likely to pick nontraditional subjects.…read more

Page 10

Preview of page 10

Here's a taster:

8) Functionalism
Durkheim: Social solidarity members are apart of a singe `body'. Without SS social life
and cooperation would be impossible as each individual would pursue their own selfish
desires. The education system helps create SS by transmitting society's culture (shared
values and beliefs from one generation to the next). Schools also act as a `society in
miniature', preparing us for life in wider society. For example, interacting with others
according to a set of impersonal rules that apply to everyone.…read more



This is fab! Thanks for the help! :D

Jazz M

So helpful! Thanks!!


Thanks, check out my unit 3 resources for next year too!


Thank you so much!


thaaanks :D


Ohhhh thanks man , u jus saved my gradeee :D


Many thanks..!!!


what got me my A

Similar Sociology resources:

See all Sociology resources »See all resources »