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ENERGY SOURCES AND SYSTEMS
ENERGY SOURCES
Sources
Glucose ­ a carbohydrate, the main form of carbohydrate found dissolved in plasma and
used as an energy source to resynthesize ATP by cells and muscles.
Glycogen ­ a carbohydrate, the stored form of carbohydrate that is found in muscles and
the liver…

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Producing enough energy to resynthesize two molecules of ATP.
Used for the first 2 to 8 seconds of exercise.
PC stores take 3 minutes to replenish
Cons of PC the system
Limited stores of PC.
High intensity exercise can only be completed for brief period of time (8 ­ 10…

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OXYGEN CONSUMPTION
Stages of consumption
Resting consumption.
Oxygen deficit.
Oxygen requirement.
Steady state oxygen consumption.
Aerobic capacity.
Oxygen deficit
Energy is provided anaerobically.
Insufficient oxygen is available at the start to provide all ATP aerobically.
This is due to the high intensity demands which is hard for the heart and…

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Restore and resynthesize ATP and PC levels.
Reduce lactic acid to normal levels.
Reload myoglobin and haemoglobin.
Restore muscle glycogen.
ATP ­ is constantly restored and it will take 48 to 72 hours to resynthesize to normal. This
requires energy from glycose.
PC ­ the breakdown of PC is reversible,…

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They have an increased oxygen carrying capacity and more red blood cells carry oxygen to
the muscle.

OBLA
OBLA
Onset of blood lactate accumulation.
The point at which lactate starts to accumulate within the blood, followed by a huge
increase in it.
This is reached at 4 mmol.
Endurance athletes…

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The higher the VO 2 max, the more the delay in lactic acid buildup, meaning as VO
2 max

increases, so does lactate threshold.
Trained athletes can exercise for longer periods at the higher intensities compared to an
untrained athlete.




MUSCLES
STRUCTURE
Skeletal muscles cause our bodies to move.
Muscle…

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Slow oxidative.
Fatigue and contract slowly.
Small diameter.
Long twitch duration.
Low force.
High mitochondria, capillary density, triglycerides, oxidative enzymes, capillarisation, and
myoglobin.
Fast twitch (type 2a)
Fast oxidative glycolytic.
Between type 1 and 2b.
Medium force and duration.
Fatigue resistant.
High in oxidative and glycolytic enzymes.
Fast twitch (type…

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SPECIALISED TRAINING
THERMOREGULATION
Types
Conduction ­ transfer of heat through direct contact.
Convection ­ transfer of heat though gases.
Radiation ­ losing heat through infrared rays.
Evaporation ­ as sweat evaporates heat is lost.
How
Vasodilation
Vasoconstriction
Hypothalamus ­ the thermoregulatory centre in the brain.
Thermo receptors ­ detect changes…

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Physiological explanation
Muscle spindles detect changes in muscle fibers.
This causes the stretch reflex.
Designed to prevent overstretching.
The aim of PNF stretching is to override the stretch reflex.
The golgi Tendon organs detect overstretching of muscles.
This causes muscles to relax, this is known as autogenic inhibition.
This allows…

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The body produces EPO.
Increased concentration / red blood cells.
Increased concentration of haemoglobin and myoglobin.
Increased capacity to carry oxygen.
Increased tolerance to lactic acid and delayed OBLA.
Benefits last for up to 6 to 8 weeks.
Disadvantages
Alternative methods are now available.
This includes hypoxic tents, altitude tents…

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