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Applied Physiology to Optimise Performance

Chapter 1 ­ energy sources and systems
ATP ­ adenosine triphosphate ­ the only usable source of energy in the body




Energy is released from ATP by breaking down the bonds that hold the compound together. The
ezyme used to break these bonds in ATP-ase…

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Proteins in the form of amino acids provides a source of 5-10% of energy during exercise.
It tends to be oxidised when glycogen stores are low



The ATP-PC System

PC stands for phosophcreatine an energy-rich phosphate compound found in the sarcoplasm of the
muscles, which is readily available. It is…

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The main enzyme responsible for the anaerobic breakdown of glucose is phosphocreatine. The
energy released from the breakdown of each molecules of glucose is used to make two molecules
of ATP.

Advantages of the lactate anaerobic system Disadvantages of the lactate anaerobic
systemA
ATP can be regenerated quite quickly due…

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Beta oxidation; the electron transport chain and krebs cycle can also metabolise fats. The fats are
broken down into glycerol and free fatty acids.

the fatty acids then uder go beta oxidation where they are broken down in the mitochondria to
generate acetyl-CoA



Advantages of the aerobic system Disadvantages of…

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Chapter 2 ­ fatigue and recovery


Causes for fatigue; depend on the intensity and duration of the activity.



Glycogen depletion; there is enough glycogen stored in the body for 90 mins, when glycogen stored
are depleted the athletes are said to "hit the wall" as the bodies body try to…

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through the evaporation of sweat. When the body is dehydrated total blood volume dereases,
bloody is redirected to the skin to aid cooling.




Off setting fatigue

The relevant energy systems can be trained using an appropriate training method, eg)
continuous training uses he aerobic system
Glycogen level can be conserved…

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Fast replenishment stage; (alactacid component) the restoration of ATP and phosphocreatine
stores and the re-saturation of myoglobin with oxygen.

Eleveated rates of respiration continue to supply oxygen to provide the energy for ATP production
and phosphocreatine replenishment.

Complete restoration takes 3mins but 50% is done in 30 seconds

3 litres…

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Factor affecting recovery

Increase in breathing and heart rates
Increased activity of hormones
Increased body temperature

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Chapter 3 - What makes a successful endurance performer?
The significance of maximum oxygen consumption in sporting performance

VO2 max; the maximum volume of oxygen that can be taken in and used by the muscles per minute.

VO2 max depends on;

How effectively an individual can inspire and expire
One…

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Increased stores of glycogen and trglycerides
Increased myoglobin
Increased caplilarisation
Increased number and size of mitochondria
increased concentration of oxidative enzymes
Increased lactate tolerance
Reduced body fat
Slow twitch hypertrophy



Evaluation of VO2 max

Three tests for VO2 max

Douglas bag; athlete runs on a treadmill to the point of…

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