Applied Physiology to Optimise Performance

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Applied Physiology to Optimise Performance
Chapter 1 ­ energy sources and systems
ATP ­ adenosine triphosphate ­ the only usable source of energy in the body
Energy is released from ATP by breaking down the bonds that hold the compound together. The
ezyme used to break these bonds in ATP-ase which break ATP ADP + Pi. This is an endothermic
reaction because energy is released .
Regeneration of ATP is an exothermic reaction which uses three types of energy system
The ATP-PC system
The lactate anaerobic system
The aerobic system
Sources of energy to replenish ATP
Phosphocreatine used in the first 10 seconds of exercise easy to break down and stored in
muscle cells but stores are limited
Carbohydrates stored as glycogen in the muscles and liver and converted to glucose during
exercise, during high intensity exercise glycogen can be broken down without the presence
of oxygen but this is less effective
Fats stored as triglycerides and converted to free fatty acids when needed, fat can produce
more energy per gram than glycogen because they contain more carbon

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Proteins in the form of amino acids provides a source of 5-10% of energy during exercise.
It tends to be oxidised when glycogen stores are low
The ATP-PC System
PC stands for phosophcreatine an energy-rich phosphate compound found in the sarcoplasm of the
muscles, which is readily available. It is important for fast contractions of intense exercise for 100m
sprints. PC only lasts for 10 seconds.
It can only be replenished when the activity is sub-maximal.…read more

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The main enzyme responsible for the anaerobic breakdown of glucose is phosphocreatine. The
energy released from the breakdown of each molecules of glucose is used to make two molecules
of ATP.
Advantages of the lactate anaerobic system Disadvantages of the lactate anaerobic
ATP can be regenerated quite quickly due to Lactic acid is the by-product of this system.…read more

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Beta oxidation; the electron transport chain and krebs cycle can also metabolise fats. The fats are
broken down into glycerol and free fatty acids.
the fatty acids then uder go beta oxidation where they are broken down in the mitochondria to
generate acetyl-CoA
Advantages of the aerobic system Disadvantages of the aerobic systemA
More ATP can be produced than by anaerobic This is a complicated system so cannot be used
systems- 38 ATP molecules from the complete straight away.…read more

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Chapter 2 ­ fatigue and recovery
Causes for fatigue; depend on the intensity and duration of the activity.
Glycogen depletion; there is enough glycogen stored in the body for 90 mins, when glycogen stored
are depleted the athletes are said to "hit the wall" as the bodies body try to metabolise fat but fat
cannot be used as a fuel on its own
Lactic acid build up; this caused an accumulation of H+ ions which leads to an increase in blood plasma
acidity.…read more

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When the body is dehydrated total blood volume dereases,
bloody is redirected to the skin to aid cooling.
Off setting fatigue
The relevant energy systems can be trained using an appropriate training method, eg)
continuous training uses he aerobic system
Glycogen level can be conserved by pacing activity level. Marathon runner, for example pace
themselves, as going too fast early in the race will speed up glycogen metabolism
Glycogen levels can be increased before an event to enable an endurance-based activity to
last for longer.…read more

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Fast replenishment stage; (alactacid component) the restoration of ATP and phosphocreatine
stores and the re-saturation of myoglobin with oxygen.
Eleveated rates of respiration continue to supply oxygen to provide the energy for ATP production
and phosphocreatine replenishment.
Complete restoration takes 3mins but 50% is done in 30 seconds
3 litres of oxygen are consumed
Myoglobin and replenishment of oxygen stores; myoglobin has a high affinity for oxygen. It stores
oxygen in the muscles and transports it from the capillaries to the mitochondria for energy provision.…read more

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Factor affecting recovery
Increase in breathing and heart rates
Increased activity of hormones
Increased body temperature…read more

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Chapter 3 - What makes a successful endurance performer?
The significance of maximum oxygen consumption in sporting performance
VO2 max; the maximum volume of oxygen that can be taken in and used by the muscles per minute.…read more

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Increased stores of glycogen and trglycerides
Increased myoglobin
Increased caplilarisation
Increased number and size of mitochondria
increased concentration of oxidative enzymes
Increased lactate tolerance
Reduced body fat
Slow twitch hypertrophy
Evaluation of VO2 max
Three tests for VO2 max
Douglas bag; athlete runs on a treadmill to the point of exhaustion (maximal test) the air
that is expired is collected in a Douglas bag, the concentration of the oxygen expired f
measured compared with atmospheric air.…read more


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