Revision Sheets for OCR Psychology

A detailed set of revision sheets for crime and health, jumbled up though! 

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Reaching a Verdict: Reaching a Verdict
Stages and Influences in Jury Decision Making (Key Study: Hastie et al 1983)
Majority Influence (Key Study: Asch et al 1955)
Conformity ­ the process that takes place when a individuals attitudes or behaviour is
affected by the views of the dominant group. This may be because:
Normative Social Influence ­ effect of social norms. Occurs when an individual agrees
with the opinions of a group because they wish to be accepted. The individual may not
change their private belief.
Informational Social Influence ­ when a question doesn't have an obviously correct
answer. People then look to others for information and may agree with the majority
view. This involves the practice of compliance.
Hastie et al (see above key study) found that in 9/10 cases the jury will decide in the
direction of the initial majority
Findings of Asch study lend support to situational explanation of behaviour. However, there
was a large range of individual differences in responses.
Supporting Study: Mori and Arai 2010
The sample was of both males and females
To solve the problem of unconvincing stooges they used a technique previously used in
eyewitness's research. They used the MORI technique which involved participants
wearing glasses and the participants viewed the same stimuli but saw it differently.
There were 4 participants in each group and 3 wore identical glasses and one wore a
different set, which had the effect of them observing a different comparison line
matched the target line.
They stated their judgements out loud and the one wearing the different glasses always
went last. Afterwards they were asked to complete a questionnaire recording factors
which can be used to assess why conformity rates were high/low for particular groups.
For female participants the conformity matched the findings of Asch's research but the
male participants weren't swayed by the conformity and the as a result, this was low.
Mori and Arai concluded that in groups were conformity was highest the participants
knew each other and conformity levels were lowest in those where they didn't know
each other, however the conformity levels could also be explained by cultural
differences (Japanese study) or by generational differences.
Minority Influence (Key Study: Nemeth and Wachtler)
Minority Influence ­ when a consistent minority changes the attitude of the behaviour of a
group
Supporting Study ­ Moscovici
Groups of 6 participants, of which 4 were naïve and 2 were stooges to make colour
perception judgements about a series of slides which were all blue.
In the first condition, the stooges declared the slides were all green
In the second condition, 2/3 of the slides were declared green
In the third condition the stooges were inconsistent in their choice
Results were that the expected 32% conformity was only in the first condition.
This tells us that it's the consistency of the minority which is the persuasive element. If a
minority is persuasive then it creates an impression of certainty and confidence i.e.
persuading people to see blue as green.

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After a guilty verdict: Treatment Programmes
Anger Management (Key Study: Ireland 2000)
Anger Management ­ treatment programme which assumes that violence is caused by anger
and that if violent individuals learn to control their anger then their violent behaviour will
decrease
In the UK a scheme called CALM is used (Crisis, Aggression, Limitation, Management)
Programmes are based on cognitive behavioural therapy.
Works to improve hostile aggression which is aggression which is an uncontrolled reaction ro
a person or stimulus.…read more

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Probation is seen as a `soft sentence' by many offenders
If it happens as it is meant to then it offers a chance for re-integration into society. However
unfortunately pressures on the system mean that insufficient time is spent with offenders
both pre and post release so offenders slip back into old patterns of behaviour.…read more

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Depressive symptoms include physiological disturbance such as loss of appetite and
insomnia
Depressive symptoms appear to be universal
Depression runs in families
Drugs can be used to treat depression and induce depressive symptoms
Reductionist in approach
Behavioural Explanations (Key Study: O'Rourke et al 1980)
Propose that maladaptive behaviours are learnt through classical conditioning or operant
conditioning
Classical conditioning would suggest that we make associations between life events and
mood and this leads to learned behaviours that are symptoms of depression
Supporting Study: Seligman 1974
Studied…read more

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There is room for misdiagnosis, as some people may show all the characteristics and others may not.
Diagnosis is not simply a checklist of disorders to be ticked against a patient's symptoms. There is
also room for disagreement; biases by cultures or practitioners may unwittingly lead to misdiagnosis,
no diagnosis when there should've been (type 1 error) or even a diagnosis when there shouldn't be
one (type 2 errors).…read more

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Behaviourally (freeze/flight)
An anxiety disorder - phobia
Psychotic Disorder
General Characteristics
Psychosis - general term for disorders that involve a loss of contact with reality
Encompasses disorders which involve delusions such as schizophrenia, schizoaffective
disorders and brief psychotic disorders
Symptoms are positive, with behaviours such as distortions in thinking and negative, where
normal behaviours are missing such as emotional reactions or fluent speech.
Leads to withdrawal from outside world because the person gradually becomes more
confused and disorientated.…read more

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Negative Symptoms ­ considered to be a loss or absence of normal characteristics including
inability to feel pleasure when nice things happen, and a lack of motivation.
Onset is often in young adulthood
Some specialists argue that it should be seen as a spectrum of conditions, along which
everyone varies and there is no cut off between healthy people and those with
schizophrenia
Disorders: Characteristics of Disorders
Affective Disorders
General Characteristics
Affective Disorders ­ disorder prevents the individual to lead a normal life, i.e.…read more

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Exists along a continuum, with some people showing all symptoms and some showing a
lesser degree of symptoms
In children, irritability is often seen instead of sadness.
Clinical depression is more than just feeling low and common symptoms include disturbed
eating and sleeping patterns, lack of interest and increased tiredness.
There is room for misdiagnosis, as some people may show all the characteristics and others may not.
Diagnosis is not simply a checklist of disorders to be ticked against a patient's symptoms.…read more

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Anxiety disorders encompass panic disorders, phobias, post-traumatic stress disorder and
generalised anxiety disorders.…read more

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Symptoms are positive, with behaviours such as distortions in thinking and negative, where
normal behaviours are missing such as emotional reactions or fluent speech.
Leads to withdrawal from outside world because the person gradually becomes more
confused and disorientated.
Characterised by delusions and disorganised speech or behaviour.
A psychotic disorder (schizophrenia)
Negative Symptoms ­ considered to be a loss or absence of normal characteristics including
inability to feel pleasure when nice things happen, and a lack of motivation.…read more

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