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Reaching a Verdict: Reaching a Verdict
Stages and Influences in Jury Decision Making (Key Study: Hastie et al 1983)

Majority Influence (Key Study: Asch et al 1955)

Conformity ­ the process that takes place when a individuals attitudes or behaviour is
affected by the views of the dominant group. This…

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After a guilty verdict: Treatment Programmes
Anger Management (Key Study: Ireland 2000)

Anger Management ­ treatment programme which assumes that violence is caused by anger
and that if violent individuals learn to control their anger then their violent behaviour will
In the UK a scheme called CALM is used…

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-residence requirement
-electronic tagging
Probation is seen as a `soft sentence' by many offenders
If it happens as it is meant to then it offers a chance for re-integration into society. However
unfortunately pressures on the system mean that insufficient time is spent with offenders
both pre and post release…

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Depressive symptoms include physiological disturbance such as loss of appetite and
Depressive symptoms appear to be universal
Depression runs in families
Drugs can be used to treat depression and induce depressive symptoms
Reductionist in approach

Behavioural Explanations (Key Study: O'Rourke et al 1980)

Propose that maladaptive behaviours are learnt…

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There is room for misdiagnosis, as some people may show all the characteristics and others may not.
Diagnosis is not simply a checklist of disorders to be ticked against a patient's symptoms. There is
also room for disagreement; biases by cultures or practitioners may unwittingly lead to misdiagnosis,
no diagnosis…

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Behaviourally (freeze/flight)

An anxiety disorder - phobia

Psychotic Disorder
General Characteristics

Psychosis - general term for disorders that involve a loss of contact with reality
Encompasses disorders which involve delusions such as schizophrenia, schizoaffective
disorders and brief psychotic disorders
Symptoms are positive, with behaviours such as distortions in thinking and…

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Negative Symptoms ­ considered to be a loss or absence of normal characteristics including
inability to feel pleasure when nice things happen, and a lack of motivation.

Onset is often in young adulthood
Some specialists argue that it should be seen as a spectrum of conditions, along which
everyone varies…

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Exists along a continuum, with some people showing all symptoms and some showing a
lesser degree of symptoms
In children, irritability is often seen instead of sadness.
Clinical depression is more than just feeling low and common symptoms include disturbed
eating and sleeping patterns, lack of interest and increased tiredness.…

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Anxiety disorders encompass panic disorders, phobias, post-traumatic stress disorder and
generalised anxiety disorders.
Normal threat triggers responses on several levels:
Emotionally (sense of panic and alarm)
Cognitively (worry about what will happen if there is a bad outcome)
Physiologically (bodies show autonomic responses such as dry mouth, palpitations,
tensed muscles…

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Symptoms are positive, with behaviours such as distortions in thinking and negative, where
normal behaviours are missing such as emotional reactions or fluent speech.
Leads to withdrawal from outside world because the person gradually becomes more
confused and disorientated.
Characterised by delusions and disorganised speech or behaviour.

A psychotic disorder…


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