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Chapter 1 ­ Explanations of Criminal Behaviour

Bandura et al.
The behaviourist perspective looks at how environmental factors can influence and
possibly even cause someone to commit a crime and this area of psychology believes that
certain behaviours can be learnt. Bandura et al. looked at how aggression can be…

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Eysenck et al. looked at how individual differences could affect and cause criminal
behaviour and in his study he aimed to classify criminal behaviour according to personality. His
personality questionnaire focussed on extraversion (how much someone looks to the outside
world for gratification, instead of themselves), neuroticism (the extent to…

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Heath
The fear of crime has interested some psychologists and how different things affect the
fear. Heath looked at how reports of crime in newspapers affected the fear of crime by
examining reports in 62 local newspapers from 42 American cities. He analysed the crime
reports in these noting their…

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physically defend themselves and women are more likely to report to the police. Less obvious
relations were that black, poor and/or less welleducated people were less likely to defend
themselves and were more likely to report the crime. Also when considering the type of crime
rape produced a higher chance…

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used to monitor changes in them, particularly during time in prison. However more research is
needed in order for PICTS to be used effectively in the UK.

Yochelson and Samenow
Some psychologists have attempted to find out if criminals have particular ways of
thinking and Yochelson and Samenow wanted to…

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combinations of these traits produced 16 different personality types. The results show that 38%
of the sample had introversion, sensing, thinking and judging and 22% had extraversion, sensing,
thinking and judging. Both of these personality types are described as practical, realistic,
unemotional, organised and good administrators, which are all optimal…

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McConville et al.
McConville et al. observed and interviewed police officers at the different stages of the
prosecution decisionmaking process and summarised what happened to the suspects after they
were arrested, and why. It was seen that in the first stage when the suspect is arrested they can
be prosecuted,…

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Loftus and Palmer
Witnesses' memories can be affected and altered by a variety of different factors and
sometimes it can even be buy the police. Loftus and Palmer investigated how leading questions
were a possible cause for altering people's memories. (2 experiments, 1. how fast were the cars
travelling when…

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experiment show that both the identification and the sorting task show a superiority of the verbal
descriptions and it is concluded that police should take verbal descriptions from witnesses
instead of relying on photo fit images.

Chapter Eight: Offender Punishments and Treatments, and Preventing Crime

Farrington (2002)
Preventing criminals from…

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Cognitive behavioural treatment is one way to help offenders improve their lives and is a
form of treatment that is used for this. Friendship et al. were interested in evaluating the
effectiveness of this form of treatment by making use of 670 adult male offenders who
volunteered to take part…

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