Pages in this set

Page 1

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PERCEPTION
Theories Gregory's top down Gibsons bottom up Bruce and Young's face
recognition
Perceptual development Infant studies Cross cultural studies Depth Perception
Visual constancies
Prosopagnosia

Page 2

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Top down theory Gregory's theory
· Because the sensory input is often ambiguous or incomplete, past experiences and knowledge
influence our perception
· Top down theory suggests that perception is indirect, as it relies on the addition of stored
knowledge
· These processes are mainly unconscious; we have no direct…

Page 3

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need
to

Page 4

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Research
support
EVALUATION
PALMER

-
participants were shown contextual scenes (e.g. a kitchen) and then shown either an
appropriate object, a similar object or a different object

-
When shown a mailbox participants frequently reported seeing a loaf of bread. Their stored
knowledge of what they would expect to find…

Page 5

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Gibson's bottom up theory
Gibsons bottom up theory suggests that perception is innate. Adaptive mechanisms have been
formed by evolution = learning is not required Ancestors needed perception to escape from
harmful predators and therefore perception is necessary for survival

Gibsons theory consists of several assumptions:
Pattern/structure of light reaching…

Page 6

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EVALUATION
Research evidence = Gibson and Walk
-
tested perception on 36, 6 month old infants -
found that babies had a false sense of perception

HOWEVER
... is bias as Gibson's wife conducted the experiment

Wraga et al
found that there was no muller layer illusion when participants walked…

Page 7

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but in dimly lit/ambiguous situations = stored knowledge is necessary to fill the `gaps'

THEREFORE
a holistic approach should be adopted

HOLISTIC

Page 8

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Depth Perception Visual constancy Infant studies
- Gibson + Walk
- Bower
- Bower
- Slater et al

Cross- cultural studies
- Hudson
- Turnbull (Kenge)
- Segall
- Allport + Pettigrew
Infant study 1 = Gibson and walk
AIM: to investigate whether depth perception is innate or learned
PROCEDURE:…

Page 9

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shape -
when later shown a variety of objects infants preferred the rectangular shapes

-
preference was measured by sensors on the infants headrest
THEREFORE shows that the infants have shape constancy and provides support for
perceptual development being innate

PERCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT

Page 10

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EVALUATION
Gibson and Walk's research has extremely good face validity, as it provides evidence that the
perception of depth and distance is indeed innate
Certainty of perception is difficult in babies because they cannot tell us what they see, so the
experimenter may therefore infer the results which leads to…

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Pages in this set

Page 1

Preview of page 1
PERCEPTION
Theories Gregory's top down Gibsons bottom up Bruce and Young's face
recognition
Perceptual development Infant studies Cross cultural studies Depth Perception
Visual constancies
Prosopagnosia

Page 2

Preview of page 2
Top down theory Gregory's theory
· Because the sensory input is often ambiguous or incomplete, past experiences and knowledge
influence our perception
· Top down theory suggests that perception is indirect, as it relies on the addition of stored
knowledge
· These processes are mainly unconscious; we have no direct…

Page 3

Preview of page 3
need
to

Page 4

Preview of page 4
Research
support
EVALUATION
PALMER

-
participants were shown contextual scenes (e.g. a kitchen) and then shown either an
appropriate object, a similar object or a different object

-
When shown a mailbox participants frequently reported seeing a loaf of bread. Their stored
knowledge of what they would expect to find…

Page 5

Preview of page 5
Gibson's bottom up theory
Gibsons bottom up theory suggests that perception is innate. Adaptive mechanisms have been
formed by evolution = learning is not required Ancestors needed perception to escape from
harmful predators and therefore perception is necessary for survival

Gibsons theory consists of several assumptions:
Pattern/structure of light reaching…

Page 6

Preview of page 6
EVALUATION
Research evidence = Gibson and Walk
-
tested perception on 36, 6 month old infants -
found that babies had a false sense of perception

HOWEVER
... is bias as Gibson's wife conducted the experiment

Wraga et al
found that there was no muller layer illusion when participants walked…

Page 7

Preview of page 7
but in dimly lit/ambiguous situations = stored knowledge is necessary to fill the `gaps'

THEREFORE
a holistic approach should be adopted

HOLISTIC

Page 8

Preview of page 8
Depth Perception Visual constancy Infant studies
- Gibson + Walk
- Bower
- Bower
- Slater et al

Cross- cultural studies
- Hudson
- Turnbull (Kenge)
- Segall
- Allport + Pettigrew
Infant study 1 = Gibson and walk
AIM: to investigate whether depth perception is innate or learned
PROCEDURE:…

Page 9

Preview of page 9
shape -
when later shown a variety of objects infants preferred the rectangular shapes

-
preference was measured by sensors on the infants headrest
THEREFORE shows that the infants have shape constancy and provides support for
perceptual development being innate

PERCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT

Page 10

Preview of page 10
EVALUATION
Gibson and Walk's research has extremely good face validity, as it provides evidence that the
perception of depth and distance is indeed innate
Certainty of perception is difficult in babies because they cannot tell us what they see, so the
experimenter may therefore infer the results which leads to…

Comments

No comments have yet been made