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Page 1

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PERCEPTION

Theories
Gregory's top down
Gibsons bottom up
Bruce and Young's face recognition

Perceptual development
Infant studies
Cross cultural studies
Depth Perception
Visual constancies

Prosopagnosia

Page 2

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Gre
g
is a ory beli
p e
His rocess ved tha
th o t
use eory st f const percep
h a ru tion
Top down theory sens igher c tes tha ction
o o t
app ry info gnitive we nee
Gregory's theory ropr r i d
iatel…

Page 3

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s e a rch
Re ort EVALUATION
s u p p


PALMER

- participants were shown contextual scenes (e.g. a
kitchen) and then shown either an appropriate object, a
similar object or a different object
-When shown a mailbox participants frequently
reported seeing a loaf of bread. Their stored
knowledge…

Page 4

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Gibson's bottom up theory
Gibsons bottom up theory suggests that perception is innate.
Adaptive mechanisms have been formed by evolution = learning is not
required
Ancestors needed perception to escape from harmful predators and therefore
perception is necessary for survival

Gibsons theory consists of several assumptions:

Pattern/structure of light reaching…

Page 5

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EVALUATION

Research evidence = Gibson
and Walk
- tested perception on 36, 6 month old infants
- found that babies had a false sense of perception

HOWEVER ... is bias as Gibson's wife conducted the experiment
Wraga et al found that there was no muller layer illusion when participants walked…

Page 6

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PERCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT

Depth Perception Visual constancy
- Gibson + Walk - Bower
Infant
studies - Bower - Slater et al


Cross- - Hudson - Segall

cultural - Turnbull (Kenge) - Allport + Pettigrew
studies

Infant study 1 = Gibson and walk
AIM: to investigate whether depth perception is innate or…

Page 7

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EVALUATION
Gibson and Walk's research has extremely good face validity, as it provides evidence that the
perception of depth and distance is indeed innate

Certainty of perception is difficult in babies because they cannot tell
us what they see, so the experimenter may therefore infer the results
which leads to…

Page 8

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Cross cultural study 1 - Hudson
Aim: To study the influence of culture on depth perception

Procedure: Used Bantu,European and Indian children
- Children shown a set of drawings, each with an
antelope, an elephant and a man with a spear. In each of
these drawings the spear is pointing…

Page 9

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EVALUATION

Nature VS Nurture
- Gibson's theory is un-applicable as he agues that perception is innate
- Gregory's theory is ideal, since the environment has evidently caused the difference in
perception


Its been found that pigmentations of the retina varies between skin colours, leading to difficulties in perceiving
objects and…

Page 10

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Bruce and Young's Theory of face recognition

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