Retail notes

Complete notes on retail for AQA A2 geography

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Changing patterns in the UK
Tradition pattern of retail based on two key factors:
Easy, local access to goods such as bread, milk and newspapers which are
purchased on a regular basis ­ often daily
Willingness to travel to a shopping centre for goods with a higher value which are
purchased less often ­ household and electrical goods, clothes and shoes
For years this had led to a two-tier structure of retail :
Local needs met by corner shops in areas of terraced housing and by suburban
shopping parades
Higher value goods were purchased in the town centre (CBD) and required a trip
by bus or car
Last 30 years ­ technology (esp. cars) have had a major influence on the patterns of
1970s ­ supermarkets and superstores began to build in residential areas and town
centres - these stores sold a full range of food and non-food items at the same
This idea expanded into larger hypermarkets that also sold electrical goods and clothing
often with smaller specialist retail outlets under the same roof
The important factor in these developments was the use of the private car to load up
once or twice a week with the `family shop'
1980s ­ non-food retail parks expanded housing DIY, carpet and furniture stores
Many such parks were built on the outskirts of towns or cities, with easy access to main
roads to attract car users.
The warehouse-type styles of buildings were often uniform in design, each distinguished
by the display on the outside and by the internal design.
1990s ­ huge out of town shopping centres were built on the periphery of large urban
areas and close to major motorways ­ they often had their own motorway junctions
Examples: MetroCentre (Gateshead), Meadowhall (Sheffield), Trafford Centre
(Manchester) and Lakeside and Bluewater (either side of the Thames in E.London)
2000s ­ e-commerce and e-tailers are growing ­ electronic home shopping using the
internet and digital and cable television systems
Supermarket chains such as Tesco, ASDA and Sainsbury's offer online shopping services,
with delivery to the customer's door

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Impact of this is yet to be seen but people still want to examine items be seen before
purchase and e-tailers depend upon mail delivery services, both road and rail based, none
of which can guarantee next-day delivery
At the same time, more traditional farmers markets, selling local fresh produce, are
growing in numbers for those customers who are willing to pay more than supermarket
prices for healthier food within fewer miles
Factors affecting retail change
1) Increased mobility
Nearly all the changes arise from…read more

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Large areas have been devoted to major retail parks and this has involved the following:
Redevelopment and or clearance of cheap farmland or a brownfield site
Creation of extensive car parks
Construction of a link to a motorway or outer ring road
Development of other transport interchange facilities ­ bus station/tram/railway
Construction of linked entertainment facilities e.g.…read more


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