Regenerating Placed Case Studies

Deindustrialization of the Steel Industry & the Ov

Deindustrialisation:

  • Steel employs 30,00 nationally, often in areas of high unemployment rates.
  • Supports many manufacturers on wider supply chains, including aerospace, defence and construction.
  • Cheaper Chinese imports, high energy costs, green taxes and strong pound were all factors in TNCs deciding on cutting costs, such as the shutting down of Scunthorpe steel plant with 4500 redundancies.
  • An estimated four further jobs are estimated to be lost with each steel redundancy.

The Overheated South:

  • Lower relative importance of manufacturing for the economy of the South East means it is less affected by deindustrialisation and recessions.
  • During the 1990s and 2000s economic boom, the area generated 37% of the UK's growth output.
  • Every other region of England has experienced a relative decline.
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Successful Regions: San Francisco

  • San Francisco has a reputation for economic energy, cultural vibrancy and tolerance.
  • In the 1990s it became the focus of Califonia's new 'gold rush', home to global dot-com businesses such as Dropbox and Twitter.
  • There has been extreme job growth in STEM biotech, life sciences and digital media companies.
  • The multiplier effect is fuelled by its technological and transportation infrastructure, high quality of life and highly skilled workforce.

However, not all have benefited.

So-called 'Google Effect' of the gentrification of districts alongside Google buses transporting worker to its Mountain View campus has created discontent from the established, less-affluent displaced locals.

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Unsuccessful Regions: The Rust Belt, USA

Many areas have struggled to adapt since deindustrialisation, for example, Chicago, which is struggling and is now characterised by increasing poverty, declining population and are even near bankruptcy, such as Detroit.

Globalisation and outsourcing of many industries to low wage Asian countries has decimates those industries in the USA.

Detroit has experienced mass migration away from the area, with entire neighbourhoods being abandoned as jobs vanish.

Rustbelt to sun-belt migration has also occurred, wherein people;e move to warmer climates in the South of the USA.

For the neighbourhoods that remain, crime and drug and alcohol abuse run rampant, with the main cause of death in the region being attributed to this.

Furthermore, entire 'caravan towns' have developed in the area, where the locals cannot afford housing and so only caravans remain.

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Struggling Rural Areas: Cornwall

Cornwall is famous for its tourist function, with hotspots such as Newquay and Padstow.

As a whole, the county is not deprived, however, there are neighbourhoods such as Redruth with such consistently high levels of deprivation that they receive European development funding.

In 2014 the average wage was £14,300 compared to the national average of £23,300.

The area was, therefore, named in the top ten most deprived areas in Western Europe.

Up to 40% of household live on less than £10,000 a year.

The loss of the mining sector has contributed to this, as well as high costs of living.

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The Differing Electoral Turnouts

As a general rule, the more deprived an area is the less it is likely to turn out for elections.

Local Scale:

  • Manchester Central has experienced an increased turn out for elections, however, compared to less deprived areas it fall short with a turn out of just over 50% compared to 74% in Cumbria (though this has experienced a decline in turnout from 77%).

Global Scale:

  • General electorial rates have been increasing, with more younger people choosing to vote than ever before, as well as larger ranges in ethnicity.
  • Though in 2015 sink estates were registered as the lowest turnout ever.
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Spec Point to Note

At this point the specification states you should conduct your own case study into the regeneration of a local area, as mine is London that is what I studied.

The next points are taken directly from the spec, to create your own local place case study.

The use of statistical evidence to determine the need for regeneration in your chosen local place:

Different media can provide contrasting evidence, questioning the need for regeneration in your chosen local place:

How different representations of your chosen local place could influence the perceived need for regeneration: 

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Airport Development and HS2

Airport Development:

  • In 2015, after 12 years of debate, the Airports Commission gave a clear and unanimous recommendation for the expansion of Heathrow, including a third runway.
  • The plans were estimated at £18.6 billion being privately funded with some public funding for supporting structures.
  • There were some against the plans, such as Londons Mayor, some MPs, celebrities and groups such as Plane Stupid.
  • Business leaders, British Chambers of Commerce and other celebrities were in favour, saying it could generate £100 billion nationally, protect 114,000 jobs and create 70,000 more.

HS2:

  • The Department for Transport's company HS2 Ltd is responsible for developing and promoting the UK's new high-speed rail network from London to Birmingham, Manchester and Leeds.
  • Key to large-scale Northern Powerhouse scheme.
  • Some environmental concerns, but overall wide support.
  • Two phases to overall be finished by 2033.
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Tensions Created by the 2012 Olympic Games

Clays Lane Estate was a housing co-operative development built in 1977, creating a community for vulnerable single people in Newham, London.

Unfortunately, the site was designated for the Olympic athlete's village and the 430 residents were forced to move.

There was a huge public opposition and even a public inquiry.

Several small businesses were also evicted from the Olympic site, such as Forman's salmon smokery.

The games brought mass tourism to the area, even after they ended, with the parks and Olypic area being turned into public leisure facilities and overall having a positive multiplier effect.

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Enabling Investment in London

London took the decision to remove a lot of the red tape stopping investment in the area, and actively encouraged FDI.

This worked with areas such as the old London Docks area becoming completely regenerated. Though gentrification of the local residents was a downfall as house prices rose to well over the national average, the regeneration of the Docks is seen as a huge success.

Deindustrialisation of the Docks and decimation after the two world wars left the Docks in a downward spiral of poverty.

Since the encouragement of FDI, the area has become a newspaper and banking hub, home to huge banks like the HSBC.

New airports and train links has connected it as a country popular hub and since a positive multiplier has allowed the local area to also be regenerated to an outstanding scale, now being one of the most sought places in London to live and bringing in tourism.

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Powys Regeneration Partnership and the LEADER Prog

An example of a coordinated and integrated approach to economic and community regeneration in a rural area.

Funded by the Welsh government and the EU using the LEADER programme, the key source of funding for deprived rural areas, using local knowledge of the value of a place to promos grassroots, community-led rural development.

Between 2011 and 2013, grants of over £4 million helped 310 business and community projects across Powys, creating 36 full-time jobs and safeguarding 80 more.

The next phase ran from 2014 to 2020. Powys County Council helps deliver this support through projects called Sustainable Tourism, Farm Diversification and Resilient Powys.

Grants are given for new glamping sites, welding workshops, equine enterprises, wildlife tourism and projects showing a 'sense of place'.

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Glasgow's Rebranding and Regeneration

Timeline:

1983: became the European City of Culture after Miles Better campaign.

2004-2013: 'Scotland With Style' rebrand aims, with considerable success, to attract trade to the city with new hotel chains, conference centres and flight routes by easyJet. Achievements include the UEFA Cup Final in 2007, World International Gymnastic and European Cheerleading Championships.

2014: Commonwealth Games with 1.26 billion saw or read about Glasgow. £740 million gross injected in the Scottish economy. Helped youth unemployment and had an overall positive multiplier effect on the whole of Glasgow.

2015: hosted the Turner Prize and was shortlisted for the 2018 Youth Olympic Games. Latest rebranding aimed at environmental, technological business development and manufacture.

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Kielder Water and Forest Park

Kielder in Northumberland is one of Englands most remote villages, dramatically altered by the creation of Europe's largest coniferous plantation in the 1930s and an 11lm-long reservoir in 1975.

Kielder Water and Forest Park attract 345,000 visitors annually.

It differs from a National Park because it has no major national funding, generated its own funding from car parks and facilities on site.

Conservation plans for red squirrels are in its plans.

The Observatory for Dark Skies is attracting 'astrotourism'.

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Broadwater Farm Estate in Tottenham

Infamous for its deadly riot in 1985, has seen several attempts at regeneration.

High-density housing development accommodating 4000 people with one of the most ethnically diverse communities in Europe.

Remains one of the poorest areas of London.

The Broadwater Farm Residents' Association is held up as a model of successful community-led regeneration, campaigning for better facilities and standards.

The latest regeneration scheme involves some of the advisors and planners involved in the Olympic Park.

Re-imagining the environment is seen as essential.

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Salford Quays

A successful, innovative cultural flagship project. In the 19th century Salford Docks, together with the Manchester Ship Canal, were integral to Manchester and the North West's success.

Deindustrialisation led to polluted waterways and derelict wasteland, transformed from the 1980s into a centre for commerce, retail, the arts and the development of the UK's first media city, costing £550 million.

The area has become a desirable residential location with a growing population. The city authority was the key stakeholder.

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North Antrim Coast

The Giants Causeway area was designated a World Heritage Site in 1986 because of its unique geology and striking landscape.

As such, there are a huge number of stakeholders involved in any development decisions.

Plans to develop a £100 million golf resort called Bushmills Dunes close to the conserved area were disputed in court for more than a decade before being approved in 2013.

The opponents, the National Trust together with UNESCO, thought the landscape change so close to the protected coastline was inappropriate despite the potential job creation.

Although approves, the proposal was eventually shelved as it was unable to raise necessary finances.

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