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RELATIONSHIPS
PSYA3 REVISION ­ OZGUR MEHMET




SECTION 1
Formation, Maintenance & Breakdown of Romantic Relationships

1 Relationship formation
2 Maintenance
3 Dissolution

SECTION 2
Evolutionary Explanations of Human Reproductive Behaviour

4 Sexual selection
5 Sex differences in parental investment

SECTION 3
Effects of Early Experience and Culture on Adult Relationships…

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The Sociobiological Explanation: (Evolutionary)

Romantic relationships:
- An evolutionary theory with differing focus between the genders.

Males:
Cannot be certain of paternity and produce lots of sperm, so their best
strategy is to have multiple partners. They do not want to waste resources
raising another mans child.

Males…

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Reinforcement & Need Satisfaction 1

The reinforcement and need satisfaction theory sees conditioning as an
explanation for relationship formation.

Someone may reward us:
· Directly (e.g. by meeting psychological needs for love and sex)
· Indirectly (e.g. because they are associated with pleasant
circumstances)

This makes us more…

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Social Exchange Theory 2

The social exchange theory explains the maintenance of relationships in terms
of maximising the benefits and minimising costs. There is a mutual exchange
of rewards between partners (e.g. friendship) and the costs of being in the
relationship, (e.g. freedoms given up). Rewards are assessed…

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Equity Theory 2

The equity theory perceives individuals as motivated to achieve fairness
(equity) in their relationship and to feel dissatisfied with inequity (unfairness).
Maintenance of the relationship occurs through balance and stability.
Relationships where individuals put in more than they receive, or receive more
than they put…

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Ducks Stage Theory 3
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Duck (1984) proposed a four-stage theory of dissolution.


Phase of Description
dissolution
Intra-psychic phase One partner privately perceives dissatisfaction with the
relationship.
Dyadic phase The dissatisfaction is discussed. If not resolved, there
is a move to the next stage.
Social phase The…

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Lee's Five-Stage Model 3
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Lee (1984) proposed a five-stage model of relationship dissolution, seeing
dissolution as a process occurring over time, rather than a single event.

Stage of Description
dissolution
Dissatisfaction An individual becomes dissatisfied with the relationship.
Exposure Dissatisfaction is revealed to the partner.
Negotiation…

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Sexual Selection 2
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The term sexual selection describes the selection of characteristics that tend 2
to increase reproductive success, i.e. producing healthy children who survive
to sexual maturity. Male and female sexual behaviours differ, because they
are subject to different selective pressures.

Males produce many…

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Male Strategies 2
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· Courtship rituals: allow males to compete and display genetic 3
potential. Miller (1997) believes that evolution shaped cultural aspects 2
of behaviour (e.g. humour) to attract sexual partners.
· Size: males evolved to be bigger than females, demonstrating
strength, to gain…

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Female Strategies 2
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· The Sexy Sons Hypothesis 2
Females select attractive males to produce sons with similar attractive 3
features, increasing reproductive fitness. Attractive male 2
characteristics have an adaptive advantage and natural selection
favours their enhancement (until the enhancement becomes bizarre,
like the…

Comments

Lexie Clark

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So useful!

bathsheba vare

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This is great! Succinct and easy to revise from without getting bogged down in convoluted writing.

bethany

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Can you make one for aggression and intelligence? ;)

VH

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The links not working, could you update it please 

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