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Diagnostic Criteria for Schizophrenia
ICD Diagnosis
Symptoms should be present for most of the time lasting for at least one month at some time during most
(1) At least one of the following must be present:
(a) thought echo, thought insertion or withdrawal, or thought broadcasting
(b) Delusions of…

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Negative symptoms Negative symptoms appear to reflect a diminution or loss of normal functions. They
are associated with social withdrawal, apathy and indifference to personal welfare and hygiene.

Delusions Bizarre beliefs that seem real to the person, but are not real. These can sometimes be
paranoid in nature. They may…

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(Prescott et al., 1986) analysed testretest reliability of several measures of attention and information
processing in 14 chronic schizophrenics. Performance on these measures was stable over a 6month period.

Issues of validity
Validity refers to the extent that a diagnosis represents something that is real and distinct from other disorders…

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() However, many researchers now accept that the fact that schizophrenia appears to run in families may
be more to do with common rearing patterns or other factors that have nothing to do with heredity e.g. EE.

Twin studies
These offer a unique opportunity for researchers to investigate the relative…

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hiding the truth. Thus, they reject feedback and develop delusional beliefs that others are manipulating
persecuting them.

(+) (MeyerLindenberg et al., 2002) link between excess dopamine in the prefrontal cortex and working
memory, which suggests a physical basis for the cognitive deficits associated with S.
(+) (Yellowlees et al., 2000)…

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Biological Therapies for Schizophrenia
Antipsychotic medication
Treat forms of psychotic illness. They help the person with the disorder to function as well as possible in their
life and, as well as increasing their feelings of subjective wellbeing.
Conventional antipsychotic drugs
Reduce the effects of dopamine and so reduce the symptoms…

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faulty beliefs. They night also be set behavioural assignments with the aim of improving their general level of
During CBT the therapist lets the patient develop their own alternatives to these previously maladaptive
beliefs, by looking for alternative explanations and coping strategies that are already present in the patients…

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() It's expense prevents it being adopted on a large scale. Because it does not appear more effective than
antipsychotics, it is not worth the extra expense. However, there is evidence to suggest that the overall cost of
treatment decreases with therapy because they are less likely to seek inpatient…


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